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beverages-04-00005.pdf

beverages-04-00005.pdf - beverages Article Development and...

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beverages Article Development and Examination of Sweet Potato Flour Fortified with Indigenous Underutilized Seasonal Vegetables Ernest Teye 1, *, Robert Agbemafle 2 and Francis Padi Lamptey 1 1 Department of Agricultural Engineering, School of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Central Region CC192, Ghana; [email protected] 2 Department of Laboratory Technology, School of Physical Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Central Region CC192, Ghana; [email protected] * Correspondence: [email protected] or [email protected] or [email protected]; Tel.: +233-33-243170302 or +233-33-206969656 Received: 23 November 2017; Accepted: 22 December 2017; Published: 8 January 2018 Abstract: Developing nutrient-rich vegetable flour using locally under-utilized food crops in Africa would improve rural house-hold nutrition. This study seeks to develop nutrient-dense vegetable flour from different proportions of Sweet potato (Sp) 40–100%, Avocado pear (Avo) 10–40%, and Turkey berry (Tor) 10–40%, using completely randomized design (CRD) with 14 treatment combinations and three replications. The proximate composition, mineral composition, and functional properties were investigated on the composite flour. The results showed significant differences in all the parameters analyzed for the various composite flours. As the amount of Avo and Tor was added to the Sp, the proximate composition was enhanced except for the percentage carbohydrate, which decreased from 83.92 to 54.59 g/100 g. The mineral composition was also improved by the incorporation of Avo and Tor. Favourable functional properties were also obtained. The optimal composite flour was made up of 40% Sp, 35% Avo, and 25% Tor. The functional properties of the composite flours were better than the control (Sweet potato flour). Fortifying Sp flour with Avo and Tor is feasible and could be an easy and affordable means to improve rural nutrition, as it requires simple logistics for the ordinary rural household to produce the composite of the desired choice. Keywords: sweet potato; fortification; avocado pear; Turkey berry; flour 1. Introduction Reducing under-nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies is high on the agenda of many developing countries and international partners, as it affects more than one-third of the global population [ 1 ]. More importantly, micronutrient deficiencies, a cause of hidden hunger, have staggering consequences for human health and well-being, which hampers economic productivity [ 2 ]. For instance, a malnourished child cannot afford to learn properly, appears stunted, and underdeveloped. To overcome this challenge, many have resorted to bio-fortification, however, this approach is very expensive and is not accessible to the rural pro-poor mostly in Africa. There is, therefore, the need to formulate nutrient rich shelf-stable food products that are convenient and accessible to all using under-utilized crops. Also, the intensive formulation and utilization of locally
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