ANT exam 2 study guide .docx

ANT exam 2 study guide .docx - SectionI: Working memory...

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Section I: Definitions Define the following terms:  Working memory – temporary storage—works in “here and now”; links thought and action to memories of learned sequences; “the mind’s ability to hold and process information in attention” Long-term memory – stores information for years; requires repetitive practice; practice encodes procedural memories; articulation between working memory and long-term memory (procedural memories stored as retrieval structures; enacted during working memory) Prospective memory – encoding, storage, and delayed retrieval of intended actions; goal- oriented…task execution; daily planner/to-do list Constructive memory – capacity to imagine the future and/or alternative futures; combines with other forms of memory to envision possible scenarios; imagining scenarios allows planning (if plans become action) Bilingualism – ability to fluently speak two languages Multilingualism –ability to fluently speak more than two languages Diglossia –two or more varieties of single language coexisting (high and low varieties) Code-switching –shifting between different multiple languages or varieties of single language depending on sociocultural context Historical linguistics – study of language change over a period of time Language families – languages related because they descended from single ancestral language Language typologies – classification of languages based on structural similarities Cognates –related words descended from a single language Superfamily –includes all languages considered to have remote relationships (multiple families) Semantic typology – explains how grammatical techniques create words and meanings (4 types) Morphological typology – classifies languages base on how morphemic parts relate to words (3 major types: analytic, synthetic, plysynthetic) Isolating language – uses word order to indicate grammatical relationships
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Inflecting language – uses affixes to indicate grammatical relationships Agglutinative language – uses affixes and groups of affixes to create meaning (may include strings of affixes) Fusional language – uses affixes/groups of affixes that become fused and lose boundaries Analytic language – one word = one morpheme Synthetic language – one word = multiple morphemes Polysynthetic language – one word = phrase Simplification –using shortened versions of words Neologisms –new words created for new objects, concepts, etc.; uses existing linguistic resources Semantic shift –meaning of a word changes with new sociocultural context Metathesis – transposition of sounds/phonemes Dissimilation – two identical or similar neighboring sounds changed in rapid speech (government, governor, colonel) Semantic extension – extending the meaning of words to include a new referent Loanwords – foreign word incorporated into native language (aka word borrowing)
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