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Running head: SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS 1 Add Title Here, up to 12 Words, on One to Two Lines Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees Institutional Affiliation(s) Author Note Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.
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SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS 2 Abstract Quantitative research is classified as the systematic empirical investigation of properties that have quantifiable elements and or phenomena, as well as the relationships between these. In general it can be said that quantitative research is usually carried out using scientific methods, and these can include and encompass, generating models and theories, gathering empirical data, developing measurements and methods of doing so amongst other approaches. The roots of quantitative approaches in a formal framework go back to the philosophies of positivism developed by Auguste Comte in the 1830 and 40's. Comte (1856) basically sets out positivism as meaning the uncovering of the laws by which both physical and human events occur through the use of scientific methods, although it is more commonly now thought of in sociology as studying society via the use of scientific methods. Comte was a French philosopher, who came up with the term of sociology and he envisaged one universal law that worked in all of the sciences, he called this the 'law of three phases'. According to Comte this law is that society has gone through three phases: Theological, Metaphysical, and Scientific. It was to the last of the three phases that he gave the name "Positive" to because of the many meanings and connotations of the word. Furthermore, the 5 underlying principles set out of the positivism philosophy are that: The scientific method as it is typically presented is that scientific research follows a linear path: This being that from an initial research question it then proceeds through observation, to the formation of a hypothesis, subsequent experimentation, before finally producing results and a conclusion. The scientific method is the approach by which researchers are able to make absolute or conclusive statements about their studies, without a significant influence from any bias. Peter Achinstein (2004) covers the history and development of the Scientific method in thorough detail in his book on the subject, Science Rules. Briefly, the development of the scientific method
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SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS 3 has roots that go back to ancient times, and first evidence of the documented formal approach over philosophy goes back to Aristotle, who by many is regarded as the father of science. It was Aristotle who first proposed the idea of induction as a tool or method for the gaining knowledge and understanding. In addition he understood that the use of abstract thought and reasoning must be backed up and supported by real world findings to have merit. He was the advocate of the use of empirical data to back up his findings and made meticulous observations to record his investigations. The Muslim scholars of the 10th to 14th centuries are widely regarded as the next
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