essay7.docx - Running head SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50...

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Running head: SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS 1 Add Title Here, up to 12 Words, on One to Two Lines Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees Institutional Affiliation(s) Author Note Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.
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SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS 2 Abstract A modern approach in studying the human brain is neuroimaging which allows scientists to look at the structural or functional aspects of the nervous system. There are two dimensions to be considered when using functional measures that are available for neuroscience research - spatial resolution which is how specific the source of signal can be localised and temporal resolution which is the time scale of the particular measurement. None of the brain imaging techniques is the ‘magic answer’ since each has its own advantages and shortcomings. This essay will focus on the studies of music perception and reading in particular to demonstrate the uses of these techniques in a complimentary fashion. Due to the complexity of these cognitive capacities as well as the different features of each imaging technique, results obtained across multiple experiments using different brain imaging techniques have to be analysed to address the specificities of the brain structures involved in both processes. In studying the human brain, early researchers has studied patients with brain damage such as lesion and stroke to determine the parts of the brain that are responsible for different human capacities from the patients’ specific abilities are disrupted. However, since brain damages can be extensive and hard to localize, and there are individual variability, this method provides only a simplistic and rudimentary mapping of function to structure and offers limited views of normal brain function. With the advent of technology, there is an increasing accessibility to brain imaging techniques which provide non-invasive ways to look at the brain with more precision and across a wide range of subjects. Neuroimaging can be divided into two broad categories – recording of brain structure which images anatomy of the nervous system, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), and functional measures which investigates brain activities during cognitive processes, such as electroencephalogram (EEG),
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SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS 3 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Still, none of these imaging techniques on its own can provide an all-inclusive answer to a particular cognitive process due to the complexity of brain functioning and respective strengths and limitations each technique. Thus, neuroimaging techniques are often used in a complementary fashion to study brain function. This essay will focus on the functional neuroimaging techniques EEG and fMRI, and demonstrate their use in studying music perception and reading, which are both high-level cognitive functions of the human brain.
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