GERMAN AND ITALIAN EXPANSION.docx

GERMAN AND ITALIAN EXPANSION.docx - 2.1 German and Italian...

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2.1: German and Italian Expansionism The Impact of Fascism on Italian Foreign Policy: The Origins, 1870 – 1933 To what extent did Fascism influence Italian foreign policy in the 1920s Fascism Ideology Fascism Promotes nationalism, a strong leader/dictator, 1-party government, empire building and war. No communism No class struggle (rich vs. poor) No internationalism No multi-party government It can be changed in order to suit the needs of the people or the leader. (Ex. Musso changes needs in order for himself) James B. Whisker – When Musso came to power before 1925, it was more a political action party seeking an ideology. THEREFORE With fascism, it’s more of a pragmatic (dealing with things sensibly) group that can adjust to different situations. With Fascism, you can create your own ideas, however Communism is the complete opposite. Post-war Italy Factors/Problems: 1. Lack of coherent sense of Italian identity 2. Returning unemployed soldiers 3. Partito Socialista Italiano (PSI) – Because of the “total war” effort, the number of Italian industrial workers grew and so did the trade unions. a. Trade unions would eventually consolidate to form a Fascist party. b. Musso was a member of a trade union c. After WWI, unemployment rose to 2 million (1919) leading to the biennio rosso (Red Years) and the socialists tried to lead a Russian-style revolution. (THEY
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FAIL!) d. Government pushed capitalists to accept labour demands 4. WWI—Polarised the country. Liberals, Nationalists, Socialists and Catholic Party. 5. Some criticised the mismanagement of the government (600,000 killed in WWI) AND the failure of the Treaty of Versailles to gain the land outlined in the Treaty of London (1915) for Italy. a. If Italy were to joined the Entente alliance, they would gain Italian-speaking territories of Austro-Hungarian Empire after WWI. i. Fiume Affair (1919): Italy received several, but not all its land requests. ii. In protest to the Treaty of Versailles, 2000 Italian soldiers occupy the port of Fiume and didn’t leave until PM Orlando was replaced. Source A: 1. The Italian soldiers took over the Port of Fiume temporarily. This is because they wanted to replace their PM, who had failed them post-WWI. 2. From the video, it is evident that they have strong nationalism. This is evident since the soldiers were horrified at the result of the Treaty of Versailles and the fact that they did not in fact receive several lands promised in the Treaty of London, seeing as all of these lands were technically Italian speaking provinces. Source B: 1. Divided (no government could suit them) 2. A thirst for justice (patriotic feeling, which pushed them to avenge for their losses) Enter Mussolini Problems: 1. Returning Soldiers—Musso was a member of the Arditi, and attempted to merge all the right-wing groups forming Fascio di Combattimento a. By 1919, 70 towns in Italy had these groups, but they were not very strong, winning zero seats in the November 1919 elections.
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b. United by their hatred for the weak, liberal govt 2.
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