Business Ethics PPT Week 2.pptx - Business Ethics Chapter 2...

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Business Ethics
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Chapter 2 Ethical Reasoning in Practice
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This article describes the significant differences between the American and Italian tax systems. The only similarities between both systems is that they both have official legal tax structures and tax rates. Under the Italian system, the government assumes that corporations declare much less profits than what they actually make; and in reality they must because after they file their tax returns, the Italian government will come back to them and ask them for a much higher figure than they originally filed. Italian Tax Mores
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As you know, this system is much different from the American system, where you must declare exactly what the figures are. Under the U.S. tax system, if you do not declare the correct amount, you will get in trouble. However, in Italy there is an expectation that everyone will lie. The article provides an interesting story about an American business man who (contrary to the advice of Italian attorneys) wanted to be honest and do it the American way. As you can see, it did not work out very well for him. Italian Tax Mores
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Under the Italian tax system, the corporation makes an original filing, which the government takes as false, and then the government comes back with a much larger figure. That is where negotiations begin. In these negotiations Italian corporations are typically represented by their commercialista, a function which exists in Italian society for the primary purpose of negotiation of corporate and individual tax payments with the Italian tax authorities. Italian Tax Mores
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Kant is best known for defending a version of the “respect for persons” principle which implies that any business practice that puts money on a par with people is immoral, but there is much more to a Kantian approach to business ethics than that. Kant argued that the highest good was the good will. To act from a good will is to act from duty. A Kantian Approach to Business Ethics
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Kant distinguished between two kinds of duty (imperatives). One kind of duty is the hypothetical imperative: where you do something so that you may get something else. Other duties are required per se, with no ifs, ands, or buts; Kant described these as categorical. Kant referred to the fundamental principle of ethics as the categorical imperative. To Kant, the ethical person is the person who acts from the right intentions. Kant’s first formulation of the categorical imperative is “Act only on that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” A Kantian Approach to Business Ethics
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Categorical imperative functions as a test to see if the principles (maxims) upon which an action is based are morally permissible.
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