imunologi.ppt - Juliana Christyaningsih 1 2 3 Fungsi...

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Juliana Christyaningsih
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Fungsi: 1. Melindungi tubuh dari invasi penyebab penyakit; menghancurkan & menghilangkan mikroorganisme atau substansi asing (bakteri, parasit, jamur, dan virus, serta tumor) yang masuk ke dalam tubuh 2. Menghilangkan jaringan atau sel yg mati atau rusak (debris sel) untuk perbaikan jaringan. 3. Mengenali dan menghilangkan sel yang abnormal. Sasaran utama: bakteri patogen & virus Leukosit mrpkn sel imun utama (disamping sel plasma, makrofag, & sel mast)
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Sistem Imun = Sistem Pertahanan Tubuh Ada 3 tahap : Physical / chemical barrier (non spesifik): Kulit, membran mukosa Sekret kulit, sekret membran mukosa Respon Inflamasi (non spesifik) : Fagositosis Inflamasi Protein antibakteria ( complement ) Respon Spesifik / respon imun :
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Respon imun memiliki suatu serial “dual nature “ : Pengenalan Self – Nonself General – Spesifik Natural – Adaptive = Innate – Aquired Humoral – Seluler Respon imun : Spesifik Ab = mengenali dan bekerja bila ada Ag Sistemik = bekerja tidak hanya di tempat inf, tp berdampak di seluruh tubuh Memiliki Memory = dapat mengenal Ag yg sama di lain waktu / masa datang
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6 1. Bakteri 2. Virus 3. Jamur 4. Protozoa bersel satu 5. Parasit
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Organ sistem imun berada di seluruh bagian tubuh organ limfoid Organ limfoid: ‘rumah’ bg limfosit Jaringan limfoid primer: (1) kelenjar thymus (2) sumsum tulang Jaringan limfoid sekunder: (1) berkapsul: limpa & kelenjar limf (2) tdk berkapsul: tonsil, GALT ( gut-associated lymphoid tissue ), jar.limfoid di kulit, sal.napas, kemih, & reproduksi
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Pertahanan lapis pertama: Pertahanan fisik ( physical barrier ) Ada 2 sistem kekebalan tubuh: 1. Sistem kekebalan nonspesifik (didapat) ( innate immune system ) 2. Sistem kekebalan spesifik (dipelajari/adaptif) ( learned/adaptive immune system )
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Tahap: Deteksi & mengenali benda asing Komunikasi dg sel lain untuk berespons Rekruitmen bantuan & koordinasi respons Destruksi atau supresi penginvasi antibodi & sitokin
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1. Respons imun alami nonspesifik - ada sejak lahir - tdk memiliki target ttt - terjadi dlm bbrp menit – jam Reaksi inflamasi 2. Respons imun didapat spesifik - spesifik untuk jenis ttt - respons thd paparan I tjd dlm bbrp hari, paparan berikutnya lebih cepat
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Antibodi : suatu molekul dalam darah dan mukosa hasil produksi limfosit B yang berperan dalam imunitas humoral untuk mengenali Ag ; (= immunoglobulin )
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Innate Immunity : Bersifat umum Baris pertama pertahanan tubuh Muncul dini, tidak spesifik Organ / sel yg berperan : Sebagai barrier : Kulit, air mata, bulu / silia, pH, sekret
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