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MALE RAPE.docx - Running head LITERATURE REVIEW 1...

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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW 1 Literature Review Name: Institutional Affiliation:
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LITERATURE REVIEW 2 LITERATURE REVIEW According to Javaid (2014) and Stempleand Meyer (2014), little information exists and no studies have established the level of occurrence of the male rape by scrutinization of official records systematically. It is challenging to find and study sex offenders. As such, the issue has remained in the eyes of the public and the law enforcement agencies making it easy to disregard (Eigenberg 1989). Dumond (2003) and Hensley, Tewksbury and Castle (2003) described sex assault in jails as among the highly protected and secretive vices in the American prisons. Male rape is essentially the act of men raping fellow men (Eigenberg, 1989). It is seen as a traditional taboo in American prisons, but the plight of the victimized subjects seems to be virtually ignored (Hensley, Tewksbury & Castle 2003). Through a thorough review of existing literature, this section, therefore, seeks to establish the reasons behind little attention and ignorance of Male rape victimization on the part of the administration and general public in the United States. Why Male Rape Is Ignored Widely In the United States According to Moster and Jegli (2009), male rape complains are often handled with hostility and insensitivity by the criminal justice officials and the police. Hodge and Canter (1998) argued that despite rape accusation being easy to make, it is hard to prove and most of the cases went unreported to the police. As such, the issue of how sex assault complaints are handled by the police raises controversy and is subject to debate (Hodge& Canter, 1998). According to many critics, law enforcers make inappropriate decisions regarding what and whether the rape cases should be investigated (Davies, 2002). Rape and other sex crimes are often misclassified based on an ambiguous notion of what constitutes sexual abuse. This contributes to the high rate of unreported rape cases and the accepted instances failing to be adequately investigated (Javaid, 2015). Studies further indicate that ignorance of male rape by the public and justice eye is 2
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LITERATURE REVIEW 3
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