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Chapter 13 - Reference Answers (Short Answers)

Chapter 13 - Reference Answers (Short Answers) - REFERENCE...

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REFERENCE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FROM CHAPTER - 13 1. How does data differ from information? Data is the basic facts collected from a transaction. Information is data that has been manipulated by summarizing, categorizing, or analyzing to make that data useful to a decision maker. 2. Why is it important for companies to store transaction data? There are four reasons that a company must collect and store transaction data. Those reasons are: 1) to complete transactions; 2) for follow-up on later transactions or for reference regarding future transactions with the same entity; 3) to prepare external reports such as financial statements; and 4) to provide information to management as they attempt to run the organization efficiently and effectively. 3. Which type of data storage media is most appropriate when a single record of data must be accessed frequently and quickly? Random access storage works best for situations in which a single record must be accessed quickly and easily. 4. Identify one type of business that would likely use real-time data processing rather than batch processing. Describe the advantages of real-time processing to this type of business. A business that sells items on a web site, such as Amazon, would be likely to use real-time data processing. This is true because the system must be able to determine information such as whether an item ordered is currently in stock. The main advantage of real-time processing is its ability to provide information immediately. There are many examples of the need for real-time data processing. Airline reservation systems are another example. 5. Differentiate between data redundancy and concurrency. Data redundancy occurs when the same data are stored in more than one file. Thus, there is redundant, or repeated data. Concurrency means that all of the multiple instances of the same data are exactly the same. It is harder to achieve concurrency when there is much data redundancy. 6. What is the term for the software program(s) that monitors and organizes the database and controls access and use of data? Describe how this software controls shared access. This software system is called a Database Management System, or DBMS. The DBMS manages the access of users or processes to the online database. The DBMS manages the data sharing by updating the data available to users immediately upon recording any changes. 7. Describe the trade-offs of using the hierarchical model of database storage. A hierarchical model database is very efficient for processing large volumes of similar transactions. It is not efficient for accessing or processing a single record from a large database. Therefore, it works well with batch processing, but would not be efficient in those situations where accessing a single record, or answering flexible queries, is necessary.
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