955-2051-1-PB.pdf - JURNAL Teori dan Aplikasi Fisika Vol.01...

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JURNAL Teori dan Aplikasi Fisika Vol.01, No. 02, Juli 2013 121 Studi Pengaruh Suhu Dan Tekanan Udara Terhadap Daya Angkat Pesawat Di Bandara S. Babullah Ternate Akhmad Fadholi Pengamat Meteorologi Geofisika Stasiun Meteorologi Depati Amir Pangkalpinang Email: [email protected] Diterima (27 Mei 2013), direvisi (27 Juni 2013) Abstract . There are three levels of operation in aviation that very important and related to meteorology. They are take off, flight (cruising), and landing. The third phase requires meteorological information. Some of meteorological elements may influence the aircraft ability at critical moments are temperature and air pressure. Temperature and pressure are two meteorological elements are interrelated, because the air pressure with temperature will determine the density of the air and the lift of aircraft. The result, at the Sultan Baabullah International Airport of Ternate suggests that the influence of temperature and air pressure is very strong. Using F-Klim 71 data from Ternate meteorological station since 1981 to 2008, air temperature has the strongest effect in March and September with 99.42% and 99.40%. The air pressure has the smallest influence March and September with 0.10% and 0.582%. The temperature with air pressure have a very strong influence with 99.99% for all of the years. Keyword : Flight, Temperature, Air pressure, Density, Lift. Abstrak , Dalam operasi penerbangan ada tiga tingkat (fase) yang sangat penting dan berhubungan dengan meteorology yaitu lepas landas ( take off ), penerbangan, dan mendarat ( landing) . Ketiga fase tersebut memerlukan informasi meteorologi. Dalam hal ini sejumlah unsur meteorologi dapat berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan pesawat terbang pada saat-saat kritis. Diantara unsur yang dapat menunjang kelancaran ketiga fase di atas adalah suhu dan tekanan udara, dimana unsur cuaca tersebut harus dimengerti dan diperhitungkan. Suhu dan tekanan udara merupakan dua unsure meteorologi yang saling terkait, karena tekanan udara bersama-sama dengan suhu akan menentukan kerapatan udaranya dan selanjutnya akan menentukan daya angkat pesawat terbang. Hasil penelitian di bandara Sultan Babullah Ternate menunjukkan bahwa pengaruh suhu dan tekanan udara sangat kuat terhadap daya angkat pesawat. Menggunakan data F-Klim 71 sejak tahun 1981 hingga 2008, suhu udara mempunyai pengaruh terkuat di bulan Maret dan September dengan nilai 99.42% dan 99.40%. Tekanan udara mempunyai pengaruh terkecil pada bulan Maret dan September dengan nilai 0.10 dan 0.582%. Secara bersama-sama, suhu dan tekanan udara mempunyai pengaruh yang sangat kuat terhadap daya angkat sepanjang tahun yaitu 99,99%. Kata Kunci : Penerbangan, Suhu Udara, Tekanan Udara, Daya Angkat. PENDAHULUAN Penerbangan secara keseluruhan selalu memperhatikan keselamatan penerbangan, keteraturan dari penerbang- an dan efisiensi atau kenyamanan pener- bangan. Tetapi pada kenyataannya hal- hal tersebut selalu menghadapi hambatan atau gangguan baik secara teknis maupun secara meteorologi. Gangguan secara meteorologi pengaruh dari unsur cuaca.
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