Chapter 14.pptx - The Earths Interior Chapter 14 EAS 2600...

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The Earth’s Interior Chapter 14 EAS 2600 – Summer 2017
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Before….
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Earth’s Layered Structure Chemical Layers Defined by chemical  composition 3 Layers: Crust Continental (30-60  km thick) Oceanic (~6 km  thick) Mantle More dense, rich in  iron Core Iron rich Physical Properties Defined by material  behavior 5 Layers Lithosphere (strong  rock layer) 100-200 km  thick, includes  upper mantle Asthenosphere (weak  but solid rock) Part of the  mantle Mesosphere (strong  lower mantle) Outer Core (liquid) Inner Core (solid) Solid due to  pressure
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How do we know what the Earth’s Interior looks  like? Rock Sampling and Drilling  ( up to ~ 12 km depth) Looks at subsurface geology Meteorites Seismic Studies Studying Volcanism
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Rock Sampling Looks at subsurface Geology Very shallow studies Deepest hole is only to 12 km Earth’s radius: 6371 km     Kola hole Near St. Petersburg, Russia 12.262 km deep
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Oceanic Crust Sampling Chikyu Japanese deep-water drilling vessel completed in 2005  Can drill down 7 km into ocean floor starting at ocean depths (~<5  km)
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Meteorites
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Seismic Surveys (Active Source) seismic surveys help us study the shallow structure beneath the surface
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Physical Properties Lithosphere  (‘rock’-sphere) Crust and uppermost mantle (~100 km thick)  Cool, rigid, solid  Asthenosphere  (‘weak’-sphere) Beneath lithosphere  To a depth of 200-400 kilometers (maybe 660 km) Soft, weak layer  Easily deformed Partially molten? 
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Physical Properties (Continued) Lower Mantle (below asthenosphere) From 600 to 2900 km depth More rigid layer  Rocks are very hot and capable of gradual flow (convection) Outer core  Liquid layer  2900 – 5150 km depth Convective flow of iron  Generates Earth’s magnetic field Inner Core  5150 – 6371 km depth Behaves like a solid    
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Chemical Properties Continental Crust Upper crust composed of granitic rocks (Al,  Na, K, SiO 2 Average density is about 2.7 g/cm 3    Up to 4.3 billion years old Thickness = 20 - 60 km Average elevation = 840 m  
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Chemical Properties Oceanic Crust
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  • Fall '08
  • INGALLS
  • Crust, Structure of the Earth, Mantle

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