Chapter 4.pptx - Chapter 4 Igneous Rocks Solids from Melts...

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Chapter 4: Igneous Rocks: Solids from Melts
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magma crystallization weathering and erosion deposition deformation melting
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The Rock Cycle Full cycle does not always take place due to "shortcuts" or interruptions e.g., Sedimentary rock melts e.g., Igneous rock is metamorphosed e.g., Sedimentary rock is weathered e.g., Metamorphic rock weathers
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Three Rock Types Igneous - cools and crystallizes from magma; intrusive and extrusive Sedimentary - deposited at Earth’s surface by physical, chemical, or biologic agents and then buried Metamorphic - rocks formed by the transformation of preexisting solid rocks due to changes in temperature and pressure
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Igneous Rocks in North America
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Sedimentary Rocks in North America
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Metamorphic Rocks in North America
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Igneous Rocks Form as magma cools and crystallizes Rocks formed inside Earth are called plutonic or intrusive rocks Rocks formed on the surface Formed from lava (a material similar to magma, but without gas Called volcanic or extrusive rocks
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Igneous rocks Crystallization of magma Ions are arranged into orderly patterns Crystal size is determined by the rate of cooling Slow rate forms large crystals Fast rate forms microscopic crystals Very fast rate forms glass Obsidian
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How Do Igneous Rocks Differ from One Another? Texture – size of crystals Coarse-grained rocks ( phaneritic ) Fine-grained rocks ( aphanitic ) Mixed texture rocks ( porphryritic )
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How Do Igneous Rocks Differ from One Another?
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How Do Igneous Rocks Differ from One Another? Clues about significance of texture Early studies of volcanic rocks Laboratory crystallization studies Studies of slow cooling in granite
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How Do Igneous Rocks Differ from One Another? Texture is related to rate of cooling. Intrusive igneous rocks Extrusive igneous rocks
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Igneous Rocks Classification is based on the rock's texture and mineral constituents Texture Size and arrangement of crystals Types Fine-grained – fast rate of cooling Coarse-grained – slow rate of cooling Porphyritic (two crystal sizes) – two rates of cooling Glassy – very fast rate of cooling
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Igneous Rock Textures fine grained - basalt coarse grained - diorite porphyritic - granite glass - obsidian
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Intrusive rocks Porphyry Porphyry
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  • Fall '08
  • INGALLS
  • Igneous rocks, intrusive igneous rocks

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