Schizophrenia_Spring2018_1perSlide.pdf

Schizophrenia_Spring2018_1perSlide.pdf - Schizophrenia...

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P S Y : 2 9 3 0 A B N O R M A L P S Y C H O L O G Y : H E A L T H P R O F E S S I O N S Schizophrenia
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Schizophrenia ¡ Prototypical psychotic disorder in DSM ¡ Characterized by a deterioration from a normal level of functioning to become ineffective in dealing with the world ¡ Loss of contact with reality (the definition of “psychosis”) ¡ Most often a chronic, life-long illness ¡ No single defining feature ¡ Impacts multiple aspects of human cognition, emotion, and behavior
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Epidemiology ¡ Prevalence ÷ 1 in every 100 people in the world (1%) ÷ 24 million people worldwide; 2.5 million in the U.S. ÷ Male = Female ¢ Women may have better prognosis ¢ Men more impaired by negative symptoms ¡ U.S. spends approximately $63 billion annually ¡ Patients occupy 50% of mental health beds ÷ As a result receives more funding from NIH than any other mental disorder ¡ Leading cause of chronic disability among 15-44 years age group ¡ Increased mortality ÷ 50% attempt suicide ÷ ~10-15% commit suicide
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Early History of Schizophrenia ¡ Kraepelin – described schizophrenia as dementia praecox (1899) ÷ Emphasized cognitive deterioration and early onset ÷ Chronic, deteriorating course ¡ Bleuler – coined the term schizophrenia (1911) ÷ Combined Greek words that mean “split” and “mind” ÷ 3 main components of schizophrenia: 1. A fragmentation of thought processes 2. A split between thoughts and emotions 3. A withdrawal from reality ÷ Distinguished between types of symptoms ¢ Fundamental symptoms (“Four As”) Disturbance of Association Affective Blunting Ambivalence Autism ¢ Accessory symptoms Delusions Hallucinations
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Symptoms Positive Symptoms* Negative Symptoms* Psychomotor Symptoms *Traditionally the 2 main types of symptoms
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Positive Symptoms ¡ Present in patients but not normal people ¡ Bizarre additions to a person’s behavior ¡ Types of positive symptoms ÷ Delusions ÷ Hallucinations ÷ Disorganized thinking and speech ÷ Heightened perceptions ÷ Inappropriate affect
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Positive Symptoms: Delusions ÷ Strange held false belief firmly held despite evidence to the contrary ÷ Often help to make sense of hallucinations ÷ Types of Delusions ¢ Grandeur – e.g., I am Jesus ¢ Ideas of Reference – e.g., the newscaster was talking about me ¢ Persecution e.g., feeling that someone is plotting against him/her ¢ Control Thoughts being controlled by someone else *Must make sure that delusions are an individual s own beliefs and not those of a specific group (e.g., Heaven s Gate)
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Positive Symptoms: Disorganized Speech and Thought ¡ Formal thought disorder ÷ A disturbance in the production and organization of speech and thought ÷ Common Forms of formal thought disorder ¢ loose associations (a.k.a. derailment) characterized by rapid shifts from one topic of conversation to another a common thinking disturbances in schizophrenia ex. A single, perhaps unimportant word in one sentence becomes the focus of the next ¢
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