Bio98Lec1-2018.pdf - General Overview Electrons/H atoms =...

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General Overview
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Electrons/H atoms = The more H atoms a molecule has, the more energy rich it is.
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C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
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CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O 2CH 3 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 4H 2 O Which molecule is more energy rich?
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CO 2 -------------------------> C 6 H 12 O 6 H atoms
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The Problem of Entropy
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Unique aspects of chemistry in biological systems 2. Water - unusual properties 3. Weak forces - strong forces are covalent bonds weak are charge-charge or electrostatic 1. Macromolecules polysaccharides - energy storage nucleic acids - genetic information proteins - enzymes, structural
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Polysaccharide Proteins Nucleic acids
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PROTEINS • enzymes - catalyze all chemical reactions • transport proteins - move molecules • receptors - transduce signals • structural proteins - architecture of cells Bio 98: Deals with structure and function of proteins and with metabolic reactions, lipids and carbohydrates. Bio 99: Deals with informational macromolecules; DNA and RNA, replication, transcription, & translation.
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Biochem IS NOT just reaction pathways! Understand logic & context of reactions Energetics, enzymology, regulation, relationship to other reactions Integrate biology, chemistry and physics
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I. Structure and properties of water A. Life depends on water B. Unusual and important properties of water II. Biochemical forces A. Strong vs weak bonds B. Non-covalent forces: general features C. Four types of non-covalent interaction Outline of the first half of the lecture
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Thermodynamics Overview 1. What is the relationship between the free energy change ( Δ G) of a reaction and its equilibrium constant? 2. How can free energy compounds like ATP be used to drive metabolic reactions that are unfavorable? 3. What is it about the structure of ATP and related compounds that make them so full of energy? 4. Thermodynamics
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Simple Thermodynamics Keq = [ products ] [ reactants ] Keq = c C a A d D b B aA + bB cC + dD If a process is spontaneous, then the reaction moving to the right is favored and Keq>1.0
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Free Energy Another measure of spontaneity is called FREE ENERGY The reactants and products have a free energy (G) We can only observe the change
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