TE US CH 2-2.pdf - Chapter 2 The American Colonies Emerge...

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Chapter 2 The American Colonies Emerge Spain establishes an American empire, devastating native populations. England forces the Dutch from North America and establishes thirteen colonies. Section 1: Spain’s Empire in the Americas The Spanish Claim a New Empire Cortés Subdues the Aztec Conquistadors (conquerors)—Spanish explorers, seek gold, silver 1519 Hernándo Cortés leads army into America's, claims land for Spain Aztec dominate region; Nahua people who resent Aztec join Cortés Montezuma thinks Cortés a god; gives him share of Aztec gold In 1520 Aztec rebel; in 1521 Spanish and their allies defeat Aztec Cortés founds Mexico City, New Spain colony on Tenochtitlán ruins Spanish Pattern of Conquest Spanish settlers mostly men, called peninsulares; marry native women Mestizo —person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry Landlords use encomienda force natives to farm, ranch, mine Priests object, encomienda abolished ; Africans brought as slaves The Conquistadors Push North Other Countries Explore North America England, France, Netherlands sponsor voyages in 1500s and 1600s Exploring Florida Juan Ponce de León discovers and names La Florida (1513) Pedro Menéndez de Avilés expels French, founds St. Augustine (1565) Settling the Southwest In 1540, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado leads expedition to Southwest Pedro de Peralta, governor of New Mexico , Spain’s northern holdings He helps found Santa Fe (1609–1610); several missions built in area Resistance to the Spanish Conflict in New Mexico Priests convert many Native Americans, try to suppress their culture
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