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Chapter 6 Notes.pdf - OneNote Online Chapter 6 Parenting...

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3/31/2018 OneNote Online https://uoguelphca-my.sharepoint.com/:o:/r/personal/nkrause_uoguelph_ca/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=%7B20980954-89CA-437F-BE98-2896F144E47 Chapter 6: Parenting Tuesday, March 27, 2018 12:11 PM Decisions about Entering Parenthood Why and when do people enter parenthood? Child-bearing reflects deep and lasting beliefs (parenthood is a central part in their lives) Couples behave in economically rational ways, assessing costs and benefits of childbearing Combines both rational choices and irrational longings Entering Parenthood in the Past A gradual decline in the Canadian birth rate from mid-nineteenth to mid-twentieth century 1831- 6.6 children, and 1961- 1.7 children Why? Improvement of birth control, changing social and economic circumstances (industrialization) Children changed from an economic benefit to an economic liability Brief interruption of decline from the baby boom (1947-1967) 2008- births per woman were below the level of replacement (population shrinks without immigration) Age of women with highest fertility rate has shifted from 25-29 to 30-34 (having children later in life!) Entering Parenthood Today: Family Planning Contraceptive; to allow women to limit total number of children they have, to space out children as desired, and a separation of sexual intercourse from pregnancy (not just for reproduction) Contraceptive rates higher where women have more education, social and economic opportunity, and empowerment Highest rates in People's Republic of China (from the one child policy ) 84% Canada 72%, USA 73% In Canada, lower rates in rural areas- farther from health care Northern Europe ¾ Western Asia 36% Africa 22% Entering Parenthood Young Fertility rate of teenagers has dropped steadily Switzerland lowest rate and United States the highest, Canada lower than the US 4 factors leading to teen pregnancy: alcoholic family member, physical assault by family member, early age drinking, early age of sex Also a cultural problem- sexualization of media, with a relative absence of sex ed, and access to contraception Children born to teen mothers are more likely to have behavioral disorders, and poor listening vocabulary As they grow, lower math scores and commit more property offences Obstacles of teen mothers: depression, financial struggles (not working) Low income may cause teenage motherhood and increased risk of low income after childbearing Especially from disadvantaged backgrounds (less education) Teen fathers: mostly 4 years older than the girl, fail to stay and raise/support the child (more likely to stay if they can find a job) Teens often find parenting more stressful and difficult than other parents- mothers still forming their identities Intensive family support can improve this Child Rearing Alone Lone parents and children 16% of families in Canada Most of these headed by women, often unplanned The Decision Not to Have Children Canadian Trends in Parenting
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