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L6-dns.ppt - Internet Addressing and Domain Name...

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Internet Addressing and Domain Name Service (DNS) CS587x Lecture Department of Computer Science Iowa State University
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Internet Addressing (IPv4) Every host on the internet has an address Each address is represented by 4 bytes Four numbers, 0-255, separated by dots (e.g., 151.101.149.67) Some special addresses 127.0.0.1 – loopback/localhost 255.255.255.255 – broadcast Reserved addresses Can be used locally (behind Network Address Translator, for example) 192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255 172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255 10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255 Not routed through the Internet Interpretting an IP address Network ID Host ID networks routes 12.0.0.0 XXX 123.0.0.0 XXX :: ::
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Classified IP address Developed in 1970s Class+Network ID+Host ID #nets #hosts 128 16,384 2,097,152 16,777,216 65,536 256 Not flexible and efficient in address allocation Some networks are too large and never use all host IDs While the Internet was running out of unassigned addresses, only 3% of the assigned addresses were actually being used IPv6 calls for 128-bit address, but requires significant changes throughout much of the Internet
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Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR) Add a number to the standard 32-bit IP address to specifify the number of bits used for network ID 206.13.01.48/25, the "/25" indicates the first 25 bits are used to identify the unique network leaving the remaining bits to identify the specific host 129.186.0.0/16 (ISU), 192.188.162.0/24 (ISU Research Park), 63.224.0.0/13 (USWest) More network IDs -- Flexible allocation of IP address blocks allows more efficient use of 32-bit address space The size of a block of IP addresses could be any power of 2 An organization needing 512 addresses could be assigned with a 23-bit mask, rather than an entire class B network (65536 addresses) Compatibility with Existing Addresses Class A address, a.b.c.d a.b.c.d/8 Class B address, a.b.c.d a.b.c.d/16 Class C address, a.b.c.d a.b.c.d/24 There is NO need to change TCP/UDP
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CIDR Routing and Address Aggregation ISP/Router 12.0.0.0/8 Organization1 12.1.0.0/16 Organization2 12.2.0.0/16 : : Organization255 12.255.0.0/16 Internet Packet with IP 12.255.1.1 ISP/Router 12.255.0.0/16 1. Which entry to use?
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