BiSc4StudyGuideExam 1.docx - Study Guide for Bi Sci 4...

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Study Guide for Bi Sci 4 Exam #1 (Also see PowerPoint Slides and your Lecture Notes) Biological Molecules, Chemistry (Chap. 2) 1. Most common elements – C, H, O, N; (others are “trace” elements) a. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen. 2. Molecule – 2 or more atoms linked 3. Water - most common molecule in body, unique properties, three states, polar molecule, hydrogen bonding 4. pH a. pH is neutral at pH 7 b. acids: pH<7 (less than) and bases: pH >7 (greater than) (alkaline, basic) 5. Biological molecules: Large molecules made of “building blocks” or subunits a. Carbohydrates - subunit is sugar (glucose) molecule, used for energy 1. simple sugar (glucose) vs. complex carbohydrates - starch and glycogen b. Lipids - do not mix well with water (“Oil and water don’t mix.”) 1. Fats (saturated vs. unsaturated including trans fats) 2. Phospholipids (plasma [cell] membranes) 3. Cholesterol (LDL, HDL), Steroid Hormones, in plasma (cell) membrane c. Proteins - made of amino acid subunits – used in most cellular processes, proper three-dimensional structure is crucial to function d. Nucleic acid – DNA, genetic material, made of four nucleotide subunits The Cell (Chap. 3) 1. Know the difference between stem cells and differentiated cells Stem Differentiated Embryonic and adult Red cells Undifferentiated or less Nerve cells Induced stem cells from differentiated cells Cartilage cells Stem cells renew epidermis Tissues: specialized, differentiated cells of same type that perform
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