Bio98Lec9-2018.pptx

Bio98Lec9-2018.pptx - MondayFeb121PM 2202NatSci1 and...

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Final Pre-Test Office Hours Monday Feb 12 1PM 2202 Nat Sci 1 and Monday Feb 12 5PM 200 Howard Schneiderman Lecture Hall 200 HSLH
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Sugars covalently attached to the polypeptide as oligosaccharide chains containing 4 to 15 sugars Sugars frequently comprise 50% or more of the total molecular weight of a glycoprotein Most glycosylated proteins are either secreted or remain membrane-bound Glycosylation is the most abundant form of post-translational modification Glycosylation confers resistance to protease digestion by steric protection Important in cell-cell recognition Protein glycosylation: A post-translational modification
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Glycoproteins Glycoproteins Specific tissues/organisms = Specific modifications Carbohydrates can be joined to proteins (Asn, Ser, Thr)
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4 Polysaccharides and Bad Bugs
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Alexander Fleming s 1921 Notebook Discovery of lysozyme
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7 Where do we find lysozyme?
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9 Summary of Carbs D or L determined by chiral C atom furtherest from reducing end What's an epimer Difference between these types of bonds Difference between starch and cellulose
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Lipids a.k.a.
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hydrophobic hydrophilic I. Defining features of lipids 1. Major portion of a lipid is hydrophobic due to many (aliphatic) CH 2 groups. 2. Minor portion is often hydrophilic , allows interaction with the aqueous environment. 3. Do not exist as large polymers (unlike nucleic acids, proteins and polysaccharides). amphipathic/amphiphilic
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Major functions of various lipid classes 1. Energy storage: fats (animals) & oils (plants). 2. Membranes: glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol & others in the famous lipid bilayer . 3. Specialized roles: Hormones (e.g., corticosterone ) Vitamins (e.g., vitamin E ) Signaling molecules (e.g., diacylglycerol )
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Various types of lipids One of the most common types of lipids are fatty acids. These have a carboxyl group as the hydrophilic head. CH 3 -C-S- CoA O acetyl CoA
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Lipids are energy-rich molecules because they are highly reduced. That is, each carbon is saturated with H atoms. In the example shown below, methane is the most reduced form of carbon and hence, the most energy rich just like the hydrophobic tail of a fatty acid. The first 2 electron oxidation of methane gives methanol, the next most energy rich form of carbon.
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