EASC1402 Deformation 2.ppt - Folded Strata Folds are warps...

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Folds are warps or buckles in rocks. Found in all all types of rocks: Sedimentary JAK 2008 1 Folded Strata Folded Strata
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Folds are warps or buckles in rocks. Found in all all types of rocks: Sedimentary JAK 2008 2 Folded Strata Folded Strata
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Folds are warps or buckles in rocks. Found in all all types of rocks: Sedimentary JAK 2008 3 Folded Strata Folded Strata
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Rock Deformation – Rock Deformation – Part 2 Part 2 Principle Stresses Elastic, Ductile & Brittle deformation Brittle: Joints and Faults Ductile: Folding Outcrop (Geologic maps)
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Rocks behave as elastic , ductile or brittle materials depending on: rate of stress application type of rock temperature and pressure If deformed materials return to original shape after stress removal, they are behaving elastically How Rocks Deform on response Elastic Deformation:
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However, once the rocks ‘elastic limit’ is surpassed, it either flows(is ductile), or fractures! If deformed materials retain their change in shape after stress removal, they have deformed ductilely How Rocks Deform on response Ductile Deformation:
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Rock deformation and structural geology Rocks deform under stress. Deformation refers to all changes in volume and/or shape of a rock body. Structural geology examines the present state of crustal deformation and determines the original geologic setting and the nature and direction of the earth forces (tectonic forces) that produced these rock structures. Folding in a rock occurs in the plastic range of the rock. Faulting/jointing occurs when the rocks break.
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Orientation of Geologic Structures Geologic structures are most obvious in deformed sedimentary rocks… Tilted beds , joints , and faults are planar features whose orientation is described by their strike and dip Strike is the compass direction of a line formed by the intersection of an inclined plane with a horizontal plane Dip is the direction and angle from horizontal in which a plane is oriented
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Structures and Geologic Maps Rock structures are determined on the ground by geologists observing rock outcrops and exposures Outcrops are places where particular rocks occur at the surface Exposures are places bedrock is exposed at the surface Geologic maps use standardized symbols and patterns to represent rock types and geologic structures,
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