Chapter 11 How Genes are Controlled.docx

Chapter 11 How Genes are Controlled.docx - Chapter 11 How...

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Chapter 11: How genes are controlled Conservation: by switching genes off when they are not needed, cells can prevent resources form being wasted Cellular differentiation: complex multicellular organisms are produced when cells switch genes on/off during development. Cancer results when genes do not turn on/off properly. Cancer cells have lost their ability to regulate their growth. Typical human cell normally expresses ~3% to 5% of it’s genes at any given time. Gene regulation: Turning on/off of genes Gene expression: the overall process of information flow from gene proteins. Operon: cluster of genes and control sequences with related functions, usu prokaryotes. Selective Gene Expression: The difference between cell types are due to selective gene expression. DNA Packing: in eukaryotic chromosomes helps regulate gene expression. Nucleosomes: a chromosome containing DNA wound around clusters of histone proteins; string and beadlike.
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