Chapter 10 Molecular Biology.docx

Chapter 10 Molecular Biology.docx - Chapter 10 Molecular...

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Chapter 10 Molecular Biology: the gene Molecular Biology: the study of heredity at the molecular level. Bacteriophages: show that DNA is the genetic material of T2, a virus that infects the bacterium EColi Bacteriophages (Phages) are viruses that infect bacteria cells DNA and RNA Nucleotides: the building blocks Sugar phosphate backbone Bonded by covalent bonds 3 for every CG 2 for every AT Nucleotide Nitrogenous base 5 Carbon sugar Phosphate group Each type of DNA nucleotide has a different nitrogen containing base: T,C,A,G James Watson & Francis Crick: Studied protein structure with a technique called x-ray crystallography Rosalind Franklin & Maurice Wilkens: DNA was produced in their lab DNA replication follows a semiconservative model. The two DNA strands separate Each strand becomes a template for the assembly of a complimentary strand from a supply of Free nucleotides. Each new DNA helix has one old strand with one new strand. Replication of a DNA molecule begins at particular sites called origins of replication DNA Polymerases: add nucleotides only to the 3’ end of the strand, never to the 5’ end DNA Ligase: links the pieces together in a DNA strand (ligase: creates bond) Ex: backstitching. First stitches are Polymerases and back stitching is ligates.
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