5 - 1800-1865.pdf - Early National Expansion Use with...

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Early National Expansion ( Use with America’s History , Chapters 7 thru 13 ) 1800-1865
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Western Expansion, 1787-1860 The Constitution provides for an orderly method of creating new, economically viable states West of the Appalachians The Louisiana Purchase (1803) doubles the size of the U.S. An economic symbiosis develops between the old Eastern states and the new mixed farming states above the Ohio River The Ohio River becomes the boundary between new “slave” (“Old Southwest”) and free labor ” (“Old Northwest”) states The rise of “King Cotton expands slavery in the South and accelerates free labor / anti-slavery sentiment in the North Bottom Line on pre-1860 Expansion: people move West first; new states then develop infrastructure to serve their needs
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How Territories Became States Initially, territory is unorganized Congress appoints judges and marshals A territory becomes organized when The territorial population reaches 5,000 and elects a legislature When the population reaches 60,000 the legislature writes a constitution and requests admission into the Union as a state New states thus escape dependency on old states
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Results of the Northwest Ordnances Above the Ohio River First territories to be “organized” Borders laid out Land surveyed for sale Slavery prohibited above the Ohio Results in admission of OH, ID, IL, MI, and WI into the Union as free states Below the Ohio River Temporarily placed under the control of VA, NC, SC To be laid out and surveyed later (in the 1810s) Slavery permitted, and will expand rapidly after 1820 Results in admission of KY, TN, AL, MS into the Union as slave states
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Breaching the Appalachian Barrier Western Migration after the Revolution Western Migration exploded after the British ceded the entire Ohio Valley to the United States Migrants and their descendants from the mid-Atlantic states generally remained above the Ohio River Migrants and their descendants from Virginia and the Carolinas moved West below the Ohio River The Ohio River thus served as a cultural border between slave and free states
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Indian Cessions and the Formation of New States Western migration created continuing pressure on Indian tribes to fight, and risk the destruction of their tribes and families, or migrate farther West themselves. After the Battle of Fallen Timbers and the Treaty of Greenville (1794-5) the Ohio Valley was effectively opened up to small farmers from Western New York and Pennsylvania.
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