seminar 01 - small lecture on Linux and Unix.doc

seminar 01 - small lecture on Linux and Unix.doc - COMP...

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COMP 2130 Introduction to Computer Systems Seminar 1: Small Lecture on Linux/UNIX Login Procedure: http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html Download putty.exe and run it on your machine: Connection procedure: Host: cs2.tru.ca Port: 2200 Connection: SSH Username: comp213010..40 Password:comp2130 1. General Multi-user system for professionals as well as plain users Hierarchical tree-like file system, starting from the root directory (/) Each user has his/her own home directory (~) o E.g., the home directory of mlee on cs.tru.ca is /home2/mlee/ or ~ mlee 1
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Only a super user (or called system administrator in Windows), called root , can change any system information Each user belongs to a group /etc/shadow o User account information with encrypted password o Non-readable to ordinary users /etc/passwd o User account information without encrypted password User account, user id , group id , real name, home directory , shell type, … o Readable to ordinary users /etc/group o Group information o Readable to ordinary users 2. When you login CLI (Command Line Interface) o init process The first process in a system o getty process Invoked by init Process login procedure Get user account and password from the user Encode the password, and compare it with the one stored in /etc/shadow Create a virtual terminal Create shell process on the virtual terminal o shell process Invoked by getty Command interpreter like Windows command shell – e.g., bash At the beginning, some script files are executed. /etc/profile for system wide environments /etc/bash for system wide functions and aliases ~/.bash_profile for individual environments ~/.bashrc for individual setup ~/.bash_login ~/.profile The current working directory is set to the home directory Read commands and execute them Until exit or logout At the end, ~/.bash_logout GUI (Graphical User Interface) o Similar jobs are proceeded 2
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3. File system Multi-user system, not like Windows systems? Many different type file systems can be mounted – /etc/fstab has the information of file systems. Hierarchical tree-like structure, starting from the root directory / Types o Directory , not folder A special file that contains files and directories o File No difference for data, text, and executable files There is
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