Ribosomes and protein synthesis.ppt - Ribosomes and Protein...

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Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
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Learning Objectives Identify the genetic code and explain how it is read. Summarize the process of translation. Describe the central dogma of molecular biology.
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The Genetic Code RNA has four bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil. These bases form a “language”: A, C, G, and U.
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The Genetic Code: Codons The genetic code is read in three-letter groupings called codons. A codon is a group of three nucleotide bases in messenger RNA that specifies a particular amino acid. AUG AAC UCU
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Genetic Code Table There are 64 possible three-base codons in the genetic code.
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Reading Codons Start at the middle of the circle with the first letter of the codon and move outward. CAC = Histidine
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Start and Stop Codons The methionine codon AUG serves as the “start” codon for protein synthesis. There are three “stop” codons. AUG = methionine = “start” codon UAA, UAG, and UGA are “stop” codons
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Translation Transcribed mRNA directs the translation process.
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