Biology 2051 Quiz 4.docx - LEARNING OUTCOMES Chapter 4...

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LEARNING OUTCOMES Chapter 4 Sections 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, 4.9 Define the following and give examples Definition Example Cytoplasm Region enclosed by the plasma membrane Includes cytosol and organelles Cytosol The region of a eukaryotic cell that is inside the plasma membrane and outside the organelles. Central coordinating region for many metabolic activities of eukaryotic cells Organelle A subcellular structure or membrane bound compartment with its own unique structure and function Chromatin Refers to the biochemical composition of chromosomes, which contain DNA and many types of proteins Chromosomes A discrete unit of genetic material composed of DNA and associated proteins Eukaryotes have chromosomes in their cell nuclei and in plastids and mitochondria Nucleolus Ribosome A structure composed of proteins and rRNA that provides the site where polypeptide synthesis occurs. Assembly site of proteins Number of ribosomes depends on amount of protein that needs to be put together Phagocytosis A form of endocytosis that involves the formation of a membrane vesicle, called a
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phagocytic vacuole, which engulfs a particle such as bacterium cytoskeleton In eukaryotes, a network of three different types of protein filaments in the cytosol called microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments. Found primarily in the cytosol as well as nucleus along the inner nuclear membrane Pseudopodia Microtubules A type of hollow protein filament composed of tubulin proteins that is part of the cytoskeleton and is important for cell shape, organization, and movement. In plants the nuclear membrane appears to function as a microtubule organizing center Involved in organization and movement of chromosomes during mitosis and in orientation of cells during cell division Intermediate filaments A type of protein filament of the cytoskeleton that helps maintain cell shape and rigidity. Keratins are intermediate filaments in skin, intestinal, and kidney cells Major constituent of hair and nails Actin Filaments A thin type of protein filament composed of actin proteins that forms part of the cytoskeleton and supports the plasma membrane; plays a key role in cell strength, shape, and movement Plus end grow towards plasma membrane ECM Nuclear Envelope Allows access to and from the nucleus "compartmentalized" by internal membranes A characteristic of eukaryotic cells in which many organelles separate the cell into different regions. Cellular compartmentalization allows a cell to carry out specialized chemical reactions in different places.
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Describe the 4 factors which determine cell structure and function (matter, energy, organization, information). Definition Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space Composed of atoms, molecules, and macromolecules Each type of cell synthesizes a unique set of molecules and macromolecules that contribute to cell structure Energy Ability to promote change or do work Needed to produce molecules and macromolecules and to carry out many cellular functions Organization
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  • Fall '13
  • Biology, Biol 2051, Knochel, UCD

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