Chemistry 2038 Chapter 1 Notes.docx - Chapter 1 Matter...

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Chapter 1 Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving 1.1 Atoms and Molecules Atoms and molecules determine how matter behaves Atoms – submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter o most often found in molecules Molecules – 2 or more atoms arranged together in a specific geometrical pattern Properties of substances depend on the atoms and molecules that compose them o Example : Hemoglobin can bind carbon monoxide molecules WHY: carbon monoxide molecules have the right size and shape and chemical properties to fit neatly into cavities within hemoglobin that are normally reserved for oxygen molecules THEREFORE: carbon monoxide diminishes oxygen carrying capacity of blood Chemistry – the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules 1.2 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Empirical – based on observation and experiment Qualitative – noting or describing how a process happens Quantitative – measuring or quantifying something about the process Hypothesis – based on a series of observations o A tentative interpretation or explanation of the observations o Must be falsifiable Falsifiable – predictions that can be confirmed or refuted by further observations Experiments – highly controlled procedures designed to generate observations o Testing of hypothesis to prove it right or wrong Scientific Method Carbon Monoxide molecule is more dangerous Carbon dioxide molecule is less dangerous because 2 nd oxygen atom prevents Carbon Dioxide from binding to hemoglobin
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Scientific Law – a brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts new ones o Describe how nature behaves o Generalizations about what nature does o AKA scientific principles Law of Conservation of Mass Antoine Lavoisier; in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed Scientific Theory - a model for the way nature is and tries to explain not merely what nature does, but why o Example : Atomic Theory Difference between a Law and Theory o A law summarizes a series of related observations, while a theory gives that underlying reasons for them 1.3 The Classification of Matter Matter
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