Chem Test 2 Study Guide.docx

Chem Test 2 Study Guide.docx - Chem Test 2 Study Guide...

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Chem Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 2 Law of Conservation of Matter: -in any chemical or physical change, the total amount of matter is CONSTANT Law of Conservation of Energy: -in any chemical/physical change, the total amount of energy is CONSTANT, but it may be converted to another form Law of Conservation of Energy and Matter: -the combined amount of energy and matter in the universe is fixed. Matter fcan be converted to energy (E= mc^2) Balancing Chemical Equations Reactants—> Products -coefficients used to balance equations (neither created, nor destroyed matter) Tricks: -always leave elements or diatomic elements until last -adding coefficients in front of a compound multiplies ALL the elements in that compound by the coefficient -multiple everything by 2 to get rid of ½ outcomes EX: 2C + O2 —> 2CO EX: 4FE + 3O2 —> 2FE203 always!!! Balancing Combustion Equations: (burning) -compounds containing H, usually make water -compounds containing N or S, make several oxides -compounds containing C, make C, CO, or CO2 Pollutants: -come from energy generation and transportation Energy Generation —> burning coal—> coal contains sulfur—> combusts to form SO2— > coal contains minerals that don’t combust- ash (PM)--> catalyzes other reactions—> SO3—> combines with water in humid air to make a fog of sulfuric acid (H2SO4)--> damages lungs and contributes to acid rain Coal fired power stations make much of the SOx Transportation —> internal combustion engine, burns gas or diesel (hydrocarbons)--> engine exhaust emissions contain NOx, VOC’s, and PM, CO (from incomplete combustion) Gasoline engines to do not produce SO2 Smog = NO2 (brown, poisonous, reactive gas)
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PM = wildfires, older diesel vehicles, woodstoves VOCs = partly burnt fuel, fuel passes too fast to combust Lead = gasoline has tetraethyl lead additive—> combustion makes lead oxide- fine power (lead banned in cars in 1997) A car exhaust contains: CO, NOx, VOC’s We prefer to convert them to CO2, N2, H2O—> Catalytic converters required on cars (since 1976) Catalytic Converter = reduce CO in the exhaust by catalyzing the combustion of CO into CO2 Secondary Pollutant —> OZONE - caused by the breakdown of NO2 with sunlight Indoor Air Pollutants= VOC’s, NO, CO, NOZ, SOZ, O3, PM Radon—> mostly in the Northeast, granite rocks. Builds in airtight basements,
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  • Spring '08
  • walker
  • Chemistry, Atom, pH, Ultraviolet, Ion, Chemical bond, Law of Conservation of Energy

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