Chemistry 2038 Chapter 3 Notes.docx

Chemistry 2038 Chapter 3 Notes.docx - Chapter 3 Molecules...

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Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations 3.1 Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water Selected Properties of Hydrogen Selected properties of Oxygen Selected Properties of Water State at room temp Explosive gas Gas can be explosive by combustion Not flammable or explosive Often used for rocket shuttle fuel Natural component of air Boiling Point Low Boiling Point (-253 C) Low Boiling Point (-183 C) High Boiling Point (100 C) Compound – elements that combine in fixed, definite proportions o Composed of atoms held together by chemical bonds o The properties of the compound are totally different from the constituent elements o Example: water molecules have a fixed ratio of hydrogen to oxygen Mixture – elements can mix in any proportions whatsoever o Example: hydrogen and oxygen mixtures can have any ratio of hydrogen to oxygen 3.2 Chemical Bonds Chemical Bonds – the result of interactions between the charged particles – electrons and protons – that compose atoms o Made of atoms held together by chemical bonds o Form because of the attractions to charged particles o Bonds are attractions between atoms 3 Types of Chemical Bonds o 1. Ionic Bonds Ionic Bonds – a chemical bond formed between 2 oppositely charged ions, generally a metallic cation and a nonmetallic anion, that are attracted to one another by electrostatic forces CARBON IS NOT IONIC Results in an Ionic Compound o Solid phase of an Ionic compound is composed of a lattice of alternating cations and anions o Ionic compounds are usually composed of a metal ionically bonded to 1 or more metals o Basic unit of Ionic compound is formula unit o Involves the complete transfer of electrons from 1 atom to another o Held together by electrostatic forces that are governed by Coulomb’s Law o Coulomb’s Law - The interaction between charged objects is a non- contact force that acts over some distance of separation. Charge, charge and distance o 2. Covalent Bonds
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Covalent Bond – a chemical bond in which 2 atoms share electrons that interact with the nuclei of both atoms, lowering the potential energy of each through electrostatic interactions Bond is balance between attractive and repulsive forces Involves sharing of electrons between 2 atoms NOT transfer of electrons
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