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HIST112FinalExam.docx

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1. Choose one of the following and answer in 6 sentences with examples, details, and citations- Discuss an innovation of the Scientific Revolution. During the sixteenth century Galileo Galilei invented a device that would simplify the laborious process of multiplication and division. The geometric and military compass, also referred to as the Sector, was able to perform a number of mathematical and geometric calculations in the fields of mathematics and architecture, but also in the military where the technology for firearms called for increasingly precise mathematical knowledge. 1 By Galileo’s time cannons had become standard use in war, however the cannon was complicated to use effectively and took a highly trained person in order to successfully employ it. The gunner was required to determine the proper amount of powder to be used to fire different types of shot. 2 The geometric and military compass combined the gunners compass which relied on two arms at right angles and a circular scale with a plumb line to determine elevations, with the mathematical compass which had useful scales on the legs 3 and provided a new and safer way for gunners to elevate their cannons accurately; it also offered a quicker way of computing the amount of gunpowder needed based on the size and material of the cannonball. The Sector was also beneficial for quick mathematics, with the seven proportional lines traced on the legs of the compass and the four scales marked on the quadrant, it was possible to perform with the greatest of ease all sorts of arithmetical and geometric calculations, ranging from calculating interest to extracting square and cube roots, from drawing polygons to calculating areas and volumes, from measuring gauges to surveying a territory. 4 Although in the 1800’s Gailieo’s mathematical and military compass was replaced by more efficient and accurate tools, during its time the compass was a powerful calculating instrument. 1. "Galileo's compass - History of an invention." Museo Galileo - Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza. Accessed October 28, 2017. . 2. Williams, Michael R., and Erwin Tomash. "The sector: its history, scales, and uses." Accessed October 28, 2017. 3. "What Did Galileo Invent?" Universe Today. November 21, 2016. Accessed October 28, 2017. . 4. “Galileo’s compass”

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2. Choose one of the following and answer in 6 sentences with examples, details, and citations- Why was the French Revolution a critical event in the history of the anti-slavery movement?
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