HCI作业.docx - Human-Computer Interaction 1.0...

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Human-Computer Interaction 1.0 Introduction Utilizing computers had always begged the question of interfacing. The methods by which human has been interacting with computers has travelled a long way. The journey still continues and new designs of technologies and systems appear more and more every day and the research in this area has been growing very fast in the last few decades. The growth in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) field has not only been in quality of interaction, it has also experienced different branching in its history. Instead of designing regular interfaces, the different research branches have had different focus on the concepts of multimodality rather than unimodality, intelligent adaptive interfaces rather than command/action based ones, and finally active rather than passive interfaces. This paper intends to provide an overview on the state of the art of HCI systems and cover most important branches as mentioned above. In the next section, basic definitions and terminology of HCI are given. Then an overview of existing technologies and also recent advances in the field is provided. This is followed up by a description on the different architectures of HCI designs. The final sections pertain to description on some of the applications of HCI and future directions in the field. 2.0 Definition: What is HCI? Sometimes called as Man-Machine Interaction or Interfacing, concept of Human-Computer Interaction/Interfacing (HCI) was automatically represented with the emerging of computer, or more generally machine, itself. The reason, in fact, is clear: most 1
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sophisticated machines are worthless unless they can be used properly by men. This basic argument simply presents the main terms that should be considered in the design of HCI: functionality and usability [1]. Why a system is actually designed can ultimately be defined by what the system can do i.e. how the functions of a system can help towards the achievement of the purpose of the system. Functionality of a system is defined by the set of actions or services that it provides to its users. However, the value of functionality is visible only when it becomes possible to be efficiently utilised by the user [2]. Usability of a system with a certain functionality is the range and degree by which the system can be used efficiently and adequately to accomplish certain goals for certain users. The actual effectiveness of a system is achieved when there is a proper balance between the functionality and usability of a system [3]. Having these concepts in mind and considering that the terms computer, machine and system are often used interchangeably in this context, HCI is a design that should produce a fit between the user, the machine and the required services in order to achieve a certain performance both in quality and optimality of the services [4]. Determining what makes a certain HCI design good is mostly subjective and context dependent. For example, an aircraft part designing tool should provide high precisions in view and design of
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