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CE208 (1).pdf - CEN-208 Design of Reinforced Concrete...

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CEN-208 Design of Reinforced Concrete Elements Bhupinder Singh Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering Room No. 229A [email protected]
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What is concrete ?
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The ingredients of concrete Cement Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Water
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Relative composition (by volume) of the different ingredients
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As a material, concrete can exist in two states: Fresh state Hardened state
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A sample of fresh concrete Coarse aggregate particle Cement mortar (water + cement + fine aggregate) Water
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Polished section from a hardened concrete specimen Hardened cement paste Fine aggregate particle Coarse aggregate particle
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Due to improper compaction
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Why use concrete as a construction material?
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Concrete is usually the cheapest material available for a job! 1000 T 1 m
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Maintenance considerations
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Cement is the principal binding agent in concrete
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Leading cement producers in the world (approximate annual production) China : 2000 million tonnes India: 300 million tonnes U.S.A. : 200 million tonnes
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World cement production in 2009
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What is Portland cement ?
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The raw materials of cement CSH gel, principal strength development compound in concrete From limestone From clay O.P.C. P.P.C.
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