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20180326133501biology.pdf

20180326133501biology.pdf - l Name Ml,1 rwqtm STUDY GUIDE...

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Unformatted text preview: l‘.\ Name: Ml __,1 firwqtm STUDY GUIDE - GENETICS Date: wit/2:” . 15 Period: 5 “Other than this study guide, you should be using your guided notes, mini-labs and activities, and corrected homework assignments to help you prepare for this test!“ VOCABULARY: WORD . gene 2. allele 3. crossing over 4. independent assortment 5. dominant 6. recessive 7. genotype 8. phenotype 9. homozygous 10. heterozygous ‘1 1. carrier ‘12. purebred ‘1 3 '14 15 16. 17. i.. a; K I .. 2., J . hybrid . Punnett square . X-linked inheritance incomplete dominance codominance QSRNING OBJECTIVES: Objective LS 1-4. I can use a model to illustrate the role of cellular and maintaining complex organisms. Objective LS 3—1. I can ask questions to clarify relationships about the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. Can you... draw the chromosomes in a cell that is getting ready to undergo division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing mitosis? draw the chromosomes in the cells that result after mitosis and cytokinesis? determine the number of chromosomes in the cell before, during Can you... draw the chromosomes in a cell that is getting ready to undergo meiosis? L_l draw the chromosomes in the cells that result after meiosis l and , and after mitosis? role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the meiosis ll? determine the number of chromosomes in the cell before, during, and after meiosis l and meiosis ll? demonstrate how traits are passed from parent to offspring throu fertilization? gh meiosis, sexual reproduction, and Objective LS 3—2. I can make a defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from 1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, 2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or 3) mutations caused by environmental factors. Can you... show the different ways in which pairs of chromosomes can line up in the middle of the cell during meiosis? (i.e. can you demonstrate independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis?) use math (yes, math!) to explain the number of ways in which chromosome pairs can line up during meiosis? show how crossing over results in genetically unique sex cells? Objective LS 3-3. l can apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population. Can you... use a Punnett square to explain how a child can have different traits than his/her parents? use a Punnett square to explain how a child can have different traits than his/her siblings? explain how to calculate the probability that a trait will be found in the offspring, given the phenotypes of the parents and/or grandparents? justify your reasoning about the genotype of an individual, given information about other family members and/or a description of the individual’s phenotype? PUNNETT SQUARE FORMAT: You will be given the following basic format for solving a genetics problem. You must include drawings of the sex cells with their chromosomes and alleles in order to earn credit for each problem. a) What are the genotypes of the parents? a. Mom: I ‘3‘; i“; Y: b. Dad: {A >5 k...» 3"“ flw¢”\ (”"3 if _ ‘5 ‘ an} M“ b) Set up the Punnett Square: c) What are the possible : ”11,92 ‘_ :3 ‘54? d) What are the possible‘phenotypes for the offspring? (also include GENDER if alleles are sex—linked) e) What are the chances that the offspring will have a specific phenotype? Normal phenotype: out of _____. _—1 or % IMPORTANT: split into male and female Disorder/alternate phenotype: out of , or "/0 only if the alleles are sex-linked! heterozygous and has osteogenesis i child who also has the disease. a) What are the genotypes of the parents? a. Elaine: b. Alex: b) Set up the Punnett Square: Alex: 'aS C .52 Lu 0) What are the possible genotypes for the offspring? Genotype 1: Genotype 2: d) What are the possible phenotypes for the offspring? Phenotype 1: Phenotype 2: e) What are the chances that the offspring will have a specific phenotype? Phenotype 1: out of , or % Phenotype 2: out of , or % 1. What assumption can you make about the genotypes of Alex's parents? Justify your response. 2. Alex and Elaine’s first child is born with osteogenesis imperfecta. If they decide to have another baby, what is the probability that the second child will have osteogenesis imperfecta? Explain your reasoning.“ Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder in which the red blood cells become sickle shaped. This is due to a mutation in the DNA sequence for hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to the cells. Without proper hemoglobin proteins, the sickled red blood cells do not live as long as normal red blood cells, and the person feels tired and weak. Sickle cells can also get stuck in the blood vessels and cause extreme pain. Individuals who have sickle cell anemia have the genotype rr. Individuals who are homozygous dominant have the phenotype in which red blood cells are normal. Heterozygous individuals have sickle cell trait, in which about half of the red blood cells are normal shaped, and half of the red blood cells are sickle shaped. Sickle cell trait has an evolutionary advantage in that mosquitoes that carry the blood disease malaria have a harder time drinking the blood and therefore spreading the disease. Mary and Justin have a daughter who has sickle cell anemia. They want to have more children, but are worried about the possibility that their second child will also have sickle cell anemia. Neither Mary nor Justin has sickle cell anemia. 1. Explain why a person who has sickle cell trait has half of the red blood cells normal shaped, and half of the red blood cells sickle shaped. (hint: Your explanation should include the word chromosome.) 2. How do you know the genotypes of Mary and Justin? a) What are the genotypes of the parents? a. Mary: b. Justin: b) Set up the Punnett Square: Justin: c) What are the possible genotypes for the offspring? Mary: Genotype 1: Genotype 2: Genotype 3: d) What are the possible phenotypes for the offspring? Phenotype 1: Phenotype 2: Phenotype 3: e) What are the chances that the offspring will have a specific phenotype? Phenotype 1: out of , or % Phenotype 2: out of , or % Phenotype 3: out of _.._—’ or % Name: Date: Period: Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a sex-linked, recessive disorder. The recessive allele has a mutation that causes cells to be unable to produce a protein called dystrophin. Dystrophin protein helps hold muscle cells together, so individuals with DMD experience muscle weakness and eventual loss of all muscle function. Most people who have DMD die well before their 30‘h birthday. Jack is a healthy man who marries Lucy, who has normal dystrophin production. Lucy’s brother died of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, even though neither of her parents had it, so Jack and Lucy are worried about the chances of their children having the disease. What are the chances that Jack and Lucy’s children will have Duchenne muscular dystrophy? 1. What is Lucy’s brother’s genotype? How do you know? 2. What are Lucy’s parents’ genotypes? How do you know? 3. What is the probability that Lucy could be a carrier for DMD? Show your reasoning by drawing a Punnett square of Lucy’s parents and highlighting Lucy’s possible genotypes. For the following, assume that Lucy is a carrier of the recessive allele. a) What are the genotypes of Lucy and Jack? a. Lucy: b. Jack: b) Set up the Punnett Square: Jack: Lucy: c) What are the possible genotypes for the offspring? d) What are the possible phenotypes for the offspring? e) What are the chances that the offspring will have a specific phenotype? Male Female Normal Phenotype: out of , or % Normal Phenotype: out of , or % DMD Phenotype: out of , or % DMD Phenotype: out of , or % SpongeBob and his pal Patrick love to go jellyfishing at Jellyfish Fields! The fields are home to a special type of green jellyfish known as Goobers and only really great jellyfishermen are lucky enough to catch some on every trip. Many of the jellyfish are yellow (YY) or blue (BB), but some end up green as a result of incomplete dominance. Use this information to help you complete each section below. What would happen if SpongeBob and Patrick crossed two “goobers” or green jellyfish? a) What are the genotypes of the parents? a. Mom: b. Dad: b) Set up the Punnett Square: Dad: Mom: 0) What are the possible genotypes for the offspring? d) What are the possible phenotypes for the offspring? e) What are the chances that the offspring will have a specific phenotype? Phenotype 1: out of , or % Phenotype 2: out of , or % Phenotype 3: out of , or % 1. Explain why the allele for yellow color and the allele for blue color use different letters. A Name: Date: 1. Work backwards... What is Beyonce’s genotype? Her father’s? Her mother’s? Show your reasoning in a Punnett square, and highlight Beyonce’s genotype. a) What are the genotypes of the parents? a. Beyonce: b. Jay-Z: b) Set up the Punnett Square: Jay—Z: Beyonce: d) What are the possible genotypes for the offspring? Genotype 1: Genotype 2: Genotype 3: Genotype 4: e) What are the possible phenotypes for the offspring? Phenotype 1: Phenotype 2: Phenotype 3: Phenotype 4: f) What are the. chances that the offspring will have a specific phenotype? Phenotype 1: out of Phenotype 3: out of or % Phenotype 4: or % Phenotype 2: Period: Beyonce and Jay-Z‘s daughter, Blue lvy, has blood type B. Beyonce’s blood type is A, and her father’s blood type is Q. Jay—Z’s blood type is AB. What is Blue Ivy’s genotype? (circle it in your Punnett square, and then respond to all parts of the question below). Use IA, IB, and i for the alleles. % % ...
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  • Fall '09
  • ONDIGO
  • Punnett square, specific phenotype

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