Anatomy Special Senses Objectives.docx

Anatomy Special Senses Objectives.docx - CHAPTER 15 1...

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CHAPTER 15 1. Identify the accessory eye structures, and list the functions of each. Eyebrows: provide facial expression, blocks perspiration and glare from eyes. Eyelids: keep foreign particles from entering eye; blink to moisten; helps with sleep. o Eyelashes: keep debris from eyes. o Tarsal glands: release oil that reduces tear evaporation. Conjunctiva: Transparent mucous membrane; lines eyelids, covers anterior surface of eyeball; secretes a thin mucous film that prevents the eye from drying. Lacrimal apparatus: Tears flow across the eye washing away objects; provides nutrients and oxygen; prevent infection. 6 Extrinsic Muscles o Superior rectus: Elevates eye and turns it medially. o Inferior rectus: Depresses eye and turns it medially. o Medial rectus: Turns eye medially. o Lateral rectus: Turns eye laterally. o Superior oblique: Depresses eye and turns it laterally. o Inferior oblique: Elevates eye and turns it laterally. 2. Name the layers of the wall of the eye, and indicate the major functions of each. Tunica Fibrosa: o Sclera: dense, collagenous white of the eye. o Cornea: transparent area of sclera that admits light to eye. Tunica Vasculosa: o Choroid: highly vascular, deeply pigmented layer. o Ciliary body: extension of choroid that forms a muscular ring around lens; supports lens and iris; secretes aqueous humor. o Iris: colored diaphragm controlling size of pupil. Tunica Interna: o Retina and beginning of optic nerve. 3. Explain how the functions of rods and cones differ. Rods: contain visual pigment, rhodopsin (retinal, opsin); respond to very dim light, night vision. Inputs perceived in gray tones; hundreds of rods can attach to one bipolar cell. Cones: contain three visual pigments, absorb different wavelengths; need bright light for activation, day vision; one cone attaches to a bipolar cell. 4. Describe image formation on the retina.
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Light enters the eye. It is refracted by the cornea. In order to focus, the lens must change shape. The light is refracted as it enters and exits the lens. (Convergence of eyes, constriction of pupil, accommodation of lens)? 5. Trace the pathway of light through the eye to the retina. Cornea Aqueous humor Lens Vitreous humor Retina 6. Discuss the importance of ophthalmoscopic examination. The neural layer of the retina receives its blood supply. This is the only place in the body where small blood vessels are visible. An ophthalmoscopic exam allows for physicians to observe the tiny vessels and look for signs of hypertension, diabetes, and vascular diseases. 7. Define the following terms: accommodation, astigmatism, blind spot, cataract, emmetropia, glaucoma, hyperopia, myopia, and refraction. Accommodation: the process of increasing the refractive power of the lens of the eye; focusing.
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