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Experiment Number: 1 Page | 1 Determination of the Moisture Content, Ash Content and Volatile Matter and Fixed Carbon Content of Coal Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science (CEP), Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST), Sylhet- 3114, Bangladesh Abstract The objective of this experiment is to determine the moisture content, ash content and volatile matter content of the supplied fuel sample; coal, using drier and muffle furnace. A measured amount of charcoal was taken into a crucible and it was weighed three times. Every time the weight was subtracted from the previous one to determine moisture content, ash content, and volatile matter content. First charcoal was dried in a drier for measuring moisture content then kept in a muffle furnace two times for measuring ash content and volatile matter content. These weights were calculated in percentage. Introduction A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission or nuclear fusion). Chemical fuels are substances that release energy by reacting with substances around them, most notably by the process of combustion. Chemical fuels are divided in two ways. First, by their physical properties, as a solid, liquid or gas. Secondly, on the basis of their occurrence: primary (natural fuel) and secondary (artificial fuel). Thus, a general classification of chemical fuels is : [1]
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Experiment Number: 1 Page | 2 General types of chemical fuels Primary (natural) Secondary (artificial) Solid fuels wood , coal , peat , dung , etc. coke , charcoal Liquid fuels petroleum diesel , gasoline , kerosene , LPG , coal tar , naptha , ethanol Gaseous fuels natural gas hydrogen , propane , coal gas , water gas , blast furnace gas, coke oven gas, CNG The coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. A fossil fuel, coal forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over a long period. [2] Conversion of coal: Peat Lignite Sub-Bituminous Coal Anthracite To analyze the percentage of components of the coal, there are two ways can be defined. They are : ultimate analysis and proximate analysis. The ultimate analysis determines all coal component elements, solid or gaseous and the proximate analysis determines only the fixed carbon, volatile matter, moisture content and ash percentages. The ultimate analysis is
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