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ECE 1574 Week 4 Streams.docx

ECE 1574 Week 4 Streams.docx - ECE1574 Problem Solving for...

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ECE1574 – Problem Solving for Engineers With C++ Page 1 of 7 Week 4 – Class Notes Data Streams Streams are a source or destination of characters of indefinite length. They are often associated with a source or destination of the characters, like a file, keyboard, or console. File streams are C++ objects that provide input and output functionality with files , which contain sequences of characters (streams ). C++ provides some standard libraries which deal with streams. The libraries form a hierarchy ranging from the most basic type of input/output to more specialized instances. Standard Input/Output Streams Library – hierarchical and divided into several files, each referencing certain classes Classes: pass attributes down the hierarchy to derived classes <ios> - a base class of input/output; not usually referenced directly in C++ programs <istream> - basic input stream <ostream> - basic output stream <iostream> - used to communicate through the standard input and output <fstream> - defines file stream classes (to manipulate files using stream objects) <sstream> - defines classes used to manipulate string objects as if they were streams Objects: cin – standard input stream object cout – standard output stream object cerr – standard output stream for errors Manipulator Functions: left – adjust output to the left scientific – use scientific notation setprecision – set decimal precision showpoint – show decimal point uppercase – generate upper-case letters ws – extract whitespaces More information about the standard input and output objects and their functions and manipulators is found in Section 2.5 of the textbook.
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ECE1574 – Problem Solving for Engineers With C++ Page 2 of 7 Week 4 – Class Notes
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ECE1574 – Problem Solving for Engineers With C++ Page 3 of 7 Week 4 – Class Notes Programmer-Defined Classes in C++
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