ECE 1574 Week 4 OOP.docx

ECE 1574 Week 4 OOP.docx - ECE1574 Problem Solving for...

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ECE1574 – Problem Solving for Engineers With C++ Page 1 of 6 Week 4 – Class Notes Chapter 2 – Part 2 Object Oriented Programming As we have seen over the past few weeks, C++ programs manipulate objects . Through modular programming , we develop formal segments of code that are portable; functions can be saved and used in multiple applications. Now, we introduce the concept of class. A class is a master copy of an object that determines the attributes and behaviors an object should have . We can use class definitions to define new classes that have the basic functionality of the class from which they were derived, with additional, specialized attributes. For instance, C++ defines a string class, which determines the attributes of any object consisting of a sequence of characters. Within the string class, we may be interested in objects that consist of a single character. Thus, we may define and use a character object that has all the attributes of a string, but additional constraints. Thus C++ defines what a character object is and what it is allowed to do, and that determines how a character object may be used in our functions and programs. File Stream Example Streams are a source or destination of characters of indefinite length. They are often associated with a source or destination of the characters, like a file, keyboard, or console. File streams are C++ objects that provide input and output functionality with files , which contain sequences of characters (streams ). C++ provides some standard libraries which deal with streams. The libraries form a hierarchy ranging from the most basic type of input/output to more specialized instances. Standard Input/Output Streams Library – hierarchical and divided into several files, each referencing certain classes Classes: pass attributes down the hierarchy to derived classes <ios> - a base class of input/output; not usually referenced directly in C++ programs <istream> - basic input stream <ostream> - basic output stream <iostream> - used to communicate through the standard input and output <fstream> - defines file stream classes (to manipulate files using stream objects) <sstream> - defines classes used to manipulate string objects as if they were streams
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