Religion and Culture Notes.docx

Religion and Culture Notes.docx - Ethnocentrism the belief...

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Ethnocentrism – the belief that one’s own culture is right, or superior, and any that deviate are evil or “backward.” Worldview – the overall lens, or perspective, from which one sees and interprets the world Values – The desired or ideal behavior expected by every member of culture Mores – the customs and manners, often serving as moral guidelines, of a society Taboos – prohibitions applied to things, persons, and actions because they are considered wrong or socially forbidden Culture – customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; the characteristic features of everyday existence; the shared attitudes, values, and practices of a self-identifying, distinct social groups Stratified Society – Unequal distribution of goods Theism – The belief in one or more gods or divine beings Monotheism – the belief in and worship of one God Polytheism – the worship of more than one god Atheism – the belief that no gods or higher powers exist Agnosticism – the belief that one cannot know if a God or gods exist Monism – the belief that all reality is grounded in one unified divine reality as its source Pantheism – the worship of all gods as a representation of one God Panentheism – God exists within all things and God is all things Soteriology – the concept of salvation Animism – the belief that all living things have a spirit or anima Fetishism – the belief that certain objects have the power to protect or bring good fortune Shamanism – Religious leaders who serve as spiritualists and healers Hinduism is the oldest organized religion o Started by no one person o History has little emphasis o Sacred reality transcends time, reincarnation Dravidians – People that were in India before the Aryans Aryan – “The Noble Ones” The Aryan language evolved into Sanskrit Aryan society had three classes: Priests, Warriors, and Producers Veda - Knowledge Upanishads Doctrine o Samsara – transmigration of the soul o Karma – positive and negative energy o Moksha – liberation o Atman – breath, eternal soul
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Alexander the Great – Spread the Greek Empire to the Indus Valley by the 4 th Century Tradition has it that doubting Thomas brought Christianity to India Vedanta – the end of the Vedas Devotional (Bhakti) Hinduism o Shaivism is devotion to Shiva o Vaishnavism is devotion to Vishna Three Paths to Salvation o Karma Marga – the way of Action/Brahmanism o Jnana Marga – the way of Knowledge o Bhakti Marga – the way of Devotion The Manu provides instructions on how to live a meaningful life Four Goals of Life o Kama (Pleasure) – Hindus recognize that seeking pleasures is a natural part of life o Artha (Power) – understood in terms of material success o Darma (Virtue) – Observing Hindu religious law o Moksh (Release or Liberation) _________________________________________________________________________________________________
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