MCB 3:7.docx - Organs and Tissues 210 cell types in humans...

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Organs and Tissues 210 cell types in humans - Important to know because there must be 210 different genetic programs that turn genes on/off 100 trillion cells in an adult - Puts things into perspective. Normal cells become cancer cells; this is 100 trillion opportunities to get cancer. From this POV, it is amazing that we all do not have cancer! What properties do cells in tissues need to have in order for organs to function properly? Cells need to adopt particular shapes to carry out specialized function. If 210 types of cells, there’s 210 shapes to adopt. How do they do that? What dictates the shape? We know that cytoskeleton dictates shape of cells, but we do not know how we have 210 programs for the arrangement of cytoskeleton. Cells have to adhere to one another to form an organ and work together. Thus, there are molecules that cause them to adhere. Extracellular Matrix - collection of proteins secreted outside of cells. ECM also help adhesion and keeping everything together Signaling Goes on all the time. Tissue Homeostasis Process by which organs are maintained in proper size and shape. This is also a mechanism for replacing old/injured cells with new ones via stem cells. Stem Cells Reserve of relatively undifferentiated cells. Cells that provide a reserve, the birthplace of cells in a tissue. They can divide and provide new cells that replace the old or injured cells. There has to be communication from, say, the wound area to the stem cells.
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