Unit 5 Review slides.pdf - From gene to protein Levels of...

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3/1/18 1 Levels of Evolution Evolution may take place at different levels DNA Genes Organs or systems Whole organisms Populations Species This is a contentious subject From gene to protein How genes affect the phenotype Types of mutation Fragile X syndrome Symptoms are mostly mental and cognitive impairment FMR1 gene on the X chromosome Several mechanisms abolish transcription of FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein) Sex-linked: symptoms in females none to mild, in males moderate to severe Distribution of polymorphisms In general, randomly distributed along chromosomes, except for GC-rich minisatellites
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3/1/18 2 Mutation rates Note the difference in rates between SNPs and VNTRs (microsatellites and minisatellites) SNPs are also called UEPs because of their low mutation rate Causes of mutations Causes of mutations A CG transition; CG becomes TA Effects of mutations Satellite DNA and mutation Reverse transcription The Central Dogma revised
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3/1/18 3 Electrophoretic gel separation Molecules can be separated in a gel (polyacrylamide or agarose).
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  • Spring '17
  • carol moore
  • DNA, Kary Mullis, Fragile X syndrome, genetic markers, Fast-evolving genetic markers

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