Unit 3 Review Slides.pdf - All living organisms can be...

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2/11/18 1 All living organisms can be classified as either prokaryotes or eukaryotes on the basis of the type of cells that they are composed of: 1. Prokaryotes (= ± before nucleus ² ). All prokaryotes are independent, single celled organisms. Prokaryotic cells lack a nuclear membrane and are structurally less complex than eukaryotic cells. Living examples of prokaryotes are bacteria and blue-green algae. 2. Eukaryotes (= ± true nucleus ² ). Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and a variety of organelles not found in prokaryotes. All plants and animals are eukaryotes. Cytoplasm Mitochondrion Ribosomes Eukaryotic Cell Structure Nucleus Most eukaryotic cells have dozens to thousands of mitochondria. The Cell Cycle : Multicellular organisms that reproduce sexually have two distinct types of cells: 1. Somatic cells – all of the cells of the body that are not directly involved with reproduction (e.g., neurons, muscle cells, bone cells, etc .). Reproduce by mitosis. 2. Sex cells – cells that are directly involved in reproduction. Reproduce by meiosis, and produce gametes . Gametes contain half the number of chromosomes that are found in somatic cells. In animals, there are two sex-specific types of gametes that are produced by females (ova) and males (sperm). Multicellular organisms that reproduce sexually have two distinct types of cells: 1. Somatic cells – Reproduce by mitosis. 2. Sex cells – Reproduce by meiosis, and produce gametes . Types of Cells: Chromatin – the loose, diffuse form of DNA that is seen during part of the cell cycle.
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