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Unit 1 Review Slides.pdf

Unit 1 Review Slides.pdf - What is Anthropology Greek...

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2/11/18 1 What is Anthropology? Greek anthropos : human; plus: logos : word, reason; derivation ology : study of. Understanding human physical and cultural characteristics and variation from a scientific perspective. The Four Subfields of Anthropology Cultural/Social Anthropology Archaeology Linguistic Anthropology Physical/Biological Anthropology Physical/Biological Anthropology The study of human biology and variation from an evolutionary perspective. Subfields of Physical/Biological Anthropology Paleoanthropology Genetics and genomics Primatology Morphology Osteology Paleopathology Forensic Anthropology Human variation and adaptation Learning Objectives To understand, discuss, and apply: The processes of evolution. The evolutionary basis of human variation. The genetics underlying human variation. Humans in a larger biological context. I wonder what he ± s thinking? Science is: 1. The body of knowledge gained through observation, generalization, and verification. 2. The methodology of acquiring this knowledge from the real world. 3. Philosophically, a way of viewing and understanding the natural world. Science is based on, and requires, natural explanations.
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2/11/18 2 ± Scientific Method ² 1. Make observations and ask questions . . . 2. Form a hypothesis (explanation) . . . 3. Gather and analyze data to test hypothesis. If test supports hypothesis: Tentatively accept (do not reject) hypothesis. If test refutes hypothesis: Reject or modify hypothesis and retest. After much testing, a hypothesis can become a theory ! Definitions Fact: Something known with certainty. Something that has been objectively verified. Something having real, demonstrable, existence. Hypothesis: A proposed explanation for a set of facts It is empirical: relies on real-world data. Makes testable predictions. Theory: A tested and verified hypothesis. The Scientific Method Accepts only natural (i.e., not supernatural) explanations. It is empirical: relies on real-world data. Forms hypotheses and tests them (by gathering more data, making predictions, etc.). Requires potential falsification. Builds theories from real-world data. Uses the principle of parsimony : Occam’s razor. Requires peer review and publishing. The Scientific Method: Why? It works! Our modern way of life is based on it. It provides the best way to understand the world we live in. A classic example: Modern medicine, based on our understanding of bacteria and viruses and genetics, cures and prevents more diseases than cures based on traditional ideas of diseases caused by evil spirits, or demons, or magic, or “bad air.” What is science? For our purposes, two things: A world view: explanations must be material and natural. To scientists, there is only one reality.
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