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Unformatted text preview: // K' K-^ //. !*, THE FIVE-FOOT SHELF OF BOOKS "THE HARVARD CLASSICS" W ELIOT LL D EDITED BY CHARLES THE ODYSSEY OF HOMER S TRANSLATED BY H BUTCHER AND A LANG WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES VOLUME 22 & SON NEW YORK P F COLLIER Copyright, 1909 By p. F. Collier & Son Designed, Printed, and Bound at Cfje Collier PtefiK, ^fva gorfe CONTENTS PAGE 9 Book Book I Book III 22 II ^"^ ^^ Book IV ^^ Book V Book VI Book VII ^^ ^"^ ^""^ Book VIII „ IX Book T-, 120 ^^6 Book X Book XI ^^^ ^^ Book XII ^^^ Book XIII ^^^ Book XIV Book ^°^ XV ^^^ Book XVI ^^^ Book XVII Book XVIII ^^^ ^^^ Book XIX Book ^^4 XX ^^ Book XXI Book XXII Book XXIII Book A ^^'^ ^^^ ^^^ XXIV —VOL. XXII 1 Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive in 2009 littp:// INTRODUCTORY NOTE By the ancient Greeks the authorship of their two great epic poems, the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey," was ascribed to Homer. Tradition as to tJie birthplace of this poet varied greatly, but It was rethe place most favored was Smyrna in Asia Minor. lated also that the poet was blind, that he and that he died in los. made his home in the island of Chios, and siege of Troy, which forms the subject of the "Iliad," unknown to the occasion of the wanderings of Odysseus, is unearthed indeed, has, research archceological Modern history. The is in Asia Minor a site which may plausibly be identified with the here there once occurred a struggle between two peoples inhabiting the shores or is likely to be of the Aegean Sea; but no discovery has been Homeric city, made such and it is as to render entirely possible that Homer's story of the war in any strict sense historical. Whatever may be method of composition that they were presurmised be safely may legend that had in time gained a certain the truth as to the of the two epics, it ceded by a mass of amount of cohesion and become in a sense national. But the together constituent elements of this legend would have come in both incidents many and sources; from a great variety of poems can be paralleled in the folk-tales of widely scattered Polyphepeoples. Thus the story of the blinding of the Cyclops, no where countries several in tale separate a as found is mus, can be traced; the adventure in the isle of Circe > Greek influence Hades appears in an Indian collection of tales; the descent into the central situation of is told by the South Sea Islanders; and to recthe return of a far-traveled warrior to a wife who fails ognise him occurs in stories all over the world. In the "Odyssey," into a single these and a hundred other incidents are combined most admirable structure, with almost perfect^ unity social setting of of atmosphere, the whole being placed in the plot of the the kingly age of Greece. Until comparatively recent times it had been all but univerand the "Odyssey" were the work of a single author, who conceived and executed the whole the tenth plan of each. But in 1795 F. A. Wolf argued that in sally believed that both the "Iliad" 3 INTRODUCTION 4 when he supposed the poems to have been comwas not used by the Greeks for literary purposes, therefore they must Imve been handed down orally century B. C, posed, writing and that and so have undergone many changes. The unity which he have been due to the art of later revisers, working upon more or less detached poems by various authors. Since his time controversy has raged over this "Homeric question" and there is yet no prospect of agreeperceived in both epics he conceived to ment. The extreme view that the poems are mere aggregations of separate lays of different authorship is falling out of favor; no two scholars agreeing in their analysis of the epics into their supposed constituent lays. On the other hand, it is admitted that there are clear evidences that parts of the poems belong to and the tendency is to credit the composition of two shorter epics dealing respectively with the Wrath of Achilles and the Return of Odysseus to an author of great artistic genius, and to conjecture that episodes were added by imitators, now at this point and now at that, over a considerable stretch of time, bringing them finally to their present form and length. The twenty-four books of the "Odyssey" fall naturally into six groups of four (though these are not to be regarded as indifferent dates; volving breaks in the structure), and a short account of each the poem. of these groups will serve as a guide to the contents of The first four books are occupied with the adventures of Telem(i) When the poem opens, it is achus, the son of Odysseus, the tenth year since the fall of Troy, and Odysseus has not yet returned to his home in the island of Ithaca, but is detained Meanin Ogygia, an island in the west, by the nymph Calypso. time, at home, his wife Penelope is beset by suitors who feast (ii) Failing in an riotously in the house of the absent warrior, his rights, assert to him help to Ithacans attempt to get the Telemachus sets out for Pylus under the guidance of the god- dess Athene, who is disguised as Mentor, a friendly chief. hospitably; (Hi) Nestor, the aged king of Pylus, receives them and while he is banqueting his guests the supposed Mentor vanishes and it is recognised that he was the guardian goddess sets out of the family of Odysseus. From Pylus, Telemachus Peisistratus. Nestor, son the of by accompanied Sparta, for famous (iv) In Sparta they are received by Menelaus and the Helen, now restored to her husband, and learn that Odysseus INTRODUCTION is in Ogygia. Telemachus decides the suitors are plotting his death. The second group treats of the to 5 return to Ithaca, where wanderings of Odysseus be- pertween the island of Calypso and Phaeacia. (v) The gods, suaded by Athene, send Hermes to order Calypso to let Odyswrecks seus go; but at sea his enemy Poseidon, the sea-god, gives Ino goddess the which veil a by saved is he and ship, his land of the him, which buoys him up till he comes to the the Phaeacians. (vij While the exhausted hero is sleeping by mouth with her shore, the princess Nausicaa comes to the river maidens to wash linen; and after their task they play ball and awaken the sleeper, who asks their pity and is directed to the city. ArThis scene is one of the most charming in the poem, (vii) Alcinous, and rived at the city, Odysseus is received by the king are called narrates his recent adventures, (viii) The Phaeacians and offer the wanderer a ship to carry him to Ithaca; games and a feast are held; and at the feast the blind DemodoOdysseus, cus sings of the siege of Troy and draws tears from Troy. leaving since wanderings his tell of who is persuaded to (ix) OdysIn the third group the narrative is retrospective, his visits to the Cicones, to the Lotus-eaters, and tells together, seus of one-eyed the country of the Cyclopes, where he blinded the Polyphemus; (x) of his adventures with Aeolus, god of the winds, with the Laestrygonians, and with Circe, the sorceress; to (xi) conversing with the of his descent into Hades, and his dead; (xii) of his escape from the Sirens, and Scylla and Charybdis, and of the eating by his comrades sacred kine of the sun, which caused them to perish and spirits of the from of the him alone on Calypso's isle. The main narrative is resumed in the fourth group, (xiti) The Phaeacians conduct the wanderer to his kingdom, but are left punished by Poseidon, who turns their ship to stone. Athene disguises Odysseus as an old beggar, and In Ithaca directs him as (xiv) He finds his old swine-herd to how to destroy the suitors, Eumaeus, who fails to recognise him, and (xv) in the hut meets Telemachus, (xvi) to whom he reveals himself and his plans. ^ group deali with the return of Odysseus to his Telemachus goes home first, but does not teU (xvii) palace, enters Penelope of her husband's return. The supposed beggar welcome him gives who Argos, dog his old by and is recognized The fifth INTRODUCTION 6 and dies, (xviii) In the midst of the revelry of the suitors Odysseus has a fight with Irus, a beggar supported by their alms. (xix) Penelope, conversing with her lord, fails to recognise tells him how she has baffled the suitors by the device him, hut of postponing her choice among them till the completion of a web woven by day and undone by night. The old nurse, Eurycleia, washes her master's feet and knows him by a scar, but is told (xx) Athene comforts the hero by night; keep the secret, the suitors are warned of their impending doom by a seer. In the last group the denouement is reached, (xxi) Penelope proposes that the suitors should show their skill with the bow to and of her husband; and when all fail even to bend it, the disguised hero strings it easily and shoots an arrow through twelve axe(xxii) The disguise is now cast oif; Odysseus, Telemheads, achus, and two faithful adherents turn on the suitors and slay them; and the unfaithful servants are hanged, (xxiii) from the nurse Penelope hears the news, welcomes her lord home, and learns of his wanderings. Odysseus goes out to a farm to visit (xxiv) Hermes leads the shades of the his father Laertes, suitors to Hades; while Odysseus makes himself known to his father; and later is reconciled to his subjects. The "Iliad" and the "Odyssey" stand at the head of the literature of Greece and of the epic poetry of the world; and their influence in the country of their origin and throughout the European peoples has been commensurate with their artistic greatness. Historically, they give the earliest picture of Aryan civilisation, describing a period of culture of which we should nothing. Artistically, in spite of their product the are they of a mature art, expressing with early date, supreme nobility and grace permanent and varied yet simple otherwise know almost types of human nature, in a language unsurpassed for its combination of directness, simplicity, and beauty. "The capital distinction of Homeric poetry," says Jebb, "is that it has all the freshness and simplicity of a primitive age,—all the charm which associate with the 'childhood of the world' ; while on the we has completely surmounted the rudeness of form, of thought with language, the tendency to grotesque or ignoble modes of speech, the incapacity for equable maintenance of a high level, which belong to the primitive stage other hand it the struggle in literature" AS ONE THAT FOR A WEARY SPACE HAS LAIN LULLED BY THE SONG OP CIRCE AND HER WINE IN GARDENS NEAR THE PALE OP PROSERPINE, WHERE THAT ABAKAN ISLE FORGETS THE MAIN, AND ONLY THE LOW LUTES OP LOVE COMPLAIN, AND ONLY SHADOWS OP WAN LOVERS PINE, AS SUCH AN ONE WERE GLAD TO KNOW THE BRINE SALT ON HIS LIPS, AND THE LARGE AIR AGAIN, SO GLADLY, FROM THE SONGS OP MODERN SPEECH MEN TURN, AND SEE THE STARS, AND FEEL THE FREE SHRILL WIND BEYOND THE CLOSE OP HEAVY FLOWERS AND THROUGH THE MUSIC OP THE LANGUID HOURS, THEY HEAR LIKE OCEAN ON A WESTERN BEACH THE SURGE AND THUNDER OP THE ODYSSEY. A. I». : THE ODYSSEY BOOK I In a Council of the Gods, Poseidon absent, Pallas procureth an and appearing to his son order for the restitution of Odysseus Telemachus, in human shape, adviseth him to complain of the Wooers before the Council of the people, and then go to Pylos and Sparta to inquire about his father. ; me. Muse, TELL and wandered far sacred citadel of that man, so ready at need, wide, after he had sacked of Troy, and many were the who the men whose towns he saw and whose mind he learnt, yea, and the woes he suffered in his heart upon the deep, striving to win his own life and the return of his company. Nay, many but even so he saved not his company, though he desired it sore. For through the blindness of their own hearts they perished, fools, who devoured the oxen of Helios Hyperion but the god took from them their day of returning. Of these things, goddess, daughter of Zeus, whencesoever thou hast heard thereof, declare thou even unto us. Now all the rest, as many as fled from sheer destruction, were at home, and had escaped both war and sea, but Odysseus only, craving for his wife and for his homeward path, the lady nymph Calypso held, that fair goddess, in her hollow caves, longing to have him for her lord. But when now the year had come in the courses of the seasons, wherein the gods had ordained that he should return home to Ithaca, not even there was he quit of labours, not even among his own but all the gods had pity on him save Poseidon, who raged continually against godlike Odysseus, till he came to his own country. Howbeit Poseidon had now departed for the distant Ethiopians, the Ethiopians that are sundered in twain, the uttermost of men, £biding some where ; 9 ' : !; ! HOMER 10 Hyperion sinks and some where he rises. There he looked to receive his hecatomb of bulls and rams, there he made merry sitting at the feast, but the other gods were gathered in the halls of Olympian Zeus. Then among them the father of gods and men began to speak, for he bethought him in his heart of noble Aegisthus, whom the son of Agamemnon, far-famed Orestes, slew. Thinking upon him he spake out among the Immortals Lo you now, how vainly mortal men do blame the gods For of us they say comes evil, whereas they even of themselves, through the blindness of their own hearts, have sorrows beyond that which is ordained. Even as of late Aegisthus, beyond that which was ordained, took to him the wedded wife of the son of Atreus, and killed her lord on his return, and that with sheer doom before his eyes, since we had warned him by the embassy of Hermes the keen' sighted, the slayer of Argos, that he should neither kill the man, nor woo his wife. For the son of Atreus shall be avenged at the hand of Orestes, so soon as he shall come So spake to man's estate and long for his own country. Hermes, yet he prevailed not on the heart of Aegisthus, for all his good will but now hath he paid one price for all.' And the goddess, grey-eyed Athene, answered him, say; ing ' : that O father, our father Cronides, throned in the highest man likewise assuredly all a death that is his due But my heart such deeds lies in who work ! so perish ; is rent for wise Odysseus, the hapless one, who far from his friends this long while suffereth affliction in a seagirt isle, where is the navel of the sea, a woodland isle, and therein a goddess hath her habitation, the daughter of the wizard Atlas, who knows the depths of every sea, and himself upholds the His daughter tall pillars which keep earth and sky asunder. and ever with it is that holds the hapless man in sorrow : and guileful tales she is wooing him to forgetfulness of But Odysseus yearning to see if it were but the Ithaca. smoke leap upwards from his own land, hath a desire to die. As for thee, thine heart regardeth it not at all, Olympian What did not Odysseus by the ships of the Argives make thee free offering of sacrifice in the wide Trojan land? Wherefore wast thou then so wroth with him, O Zeus ? soft ! THE ODYSSEY the cloud-gatherer answered her, and said, My what word hath escaped the door of thy lips? Yea, And Zeus child, how is 11 should ' I who in understanding men hath done sacrifice forget divine Odysseus, beyond mortals and beyond all Nay, but to the deathless gods, who keep the wide heaven ? hath been wroth it is Poseidon, the girdler of the earth, that continually with quenchless anger for the Cyclops' sake he blinded of his eye, even godlike Polyphemus whose power is mightiest amongst all the Cyclopes. His mother was the nymph Thoosa, daughter of Phorcys, lord of the unharvested sea, and in the hollow caves she lay with whom Poseidon. From that day forth Poseidon the earth-shaker doth not indeed slay Odysseus, but driveth him wandering from his own country. But come, let us here one and all take good counsel as touching his returning, that he may be got home so shall Poseidon let go his displeasure, for he will in no wise be able to strive alone against all, in despite of all ; the deathless gods.' Then the goddess, grey-eyed Athene, answered him, and highest, said ' O father, our father Cronides, throned in the the blessed gods, if indeed this thing is now well pleasing to let us that wise Odysseus should return to his own home, to then speed Hermes the Messenger, the slayer of Argos, let him declare speed all with There Ogygia. of island the : to the lady of the braided tresses our unerring counsel, even come to the return of the patient Odysseus, that so he may But as for me I will go to Ithaca that I may his home. to rouse his son yet the more, planting might in his heart, and speak call an assembly of the long-haired Achaeans sheep out to all the wooers who slaughter continually the and of his thronging flocks, and his kine with trailing feet to and Sparta to him guide will I And gait. shambling sandy Pylos to seek tidings of his dear father's return, if peradventure he may hear thereof and that so he may be had good report among men.' She spake and bound beneath her feet her lovely golden sea sandals that wax not old, and bare her alike over the wet wind. the of breath the as swift land, limitless and over the in she seized her doughty spear, shod with sharp bronze, weighty and huge and strong, wherewith she quells the And HOMER 12 ranks of heroes with whomsoever she is wroth, the daughThen from the heights of Olympus ter of the mighty sire. and she stood in the land of Ithaca, down, glancing came she at the entry of the gate of Odysseus, on the threshold of the courtyard, holding in her hand the spear of bronze, in the semblance of a stranger, Mentes the captain of the And there she found the lordly wooers: now Taphians. they were taking their pleasure at draughts in front of the doors, sitting on hides of oxen, which themselves had slain. And of the henchmen and the ready squires, some were mixing for them wine and water in bowls, and some again were washing the tables with porous sponges and were setting them forth, and others were carving flesh in plenty. And godlike Telemachus was far the first to descry her, for he was sitting with a heavy heart among the wooers dreaming on his good father, if haply he might come somewhence, and make a scattering of the wooers there throughout the palace, and himself get honour and bear rule among his own possessions. Thinking thereupon, as he sat among wooers, he saw Athene and he went straight to the outer porch, for he thought it blame in his heart that a stranger should stand long at the gates: and halting nigh her he clasped her right hand and took from her the spear of bronze, and uttered his voice and spake unto her winged words 'Hail, stranger, with us thou shalt be kindly entreated, and thereafter, when thou hast tasted meat, thou shalt tell — : us that whereof thou hast need.' Therewith he led the way, and Pallas Athene followed. And when they were now within the lofty house, he set her spear that he bore against a tall pillar, within the polished spear-stand, where stood many spears besides, even those of Odysseus of the hardy heart and he led the goddess and seated her on a goodly carven chair, and spread a linen cloth thereunder, and beneath was a footstool for the feet. For himself he placed an inlaid seat hard by, apart from the company of the wooers, lest the stranger should be disquieted by the noise and should have a loathing for the ; meal, being come among overweening men, and also that he might ask him about his father that was gone from his home. ; THE ODYSSEY 13 Then a handmaid bare water for the washing of hands in golden ewer, and poured it forth over a silver basin goodly a withal, and drew to their side a polished table. them, a grave dame bare wheaten bread and set it by such of freely giving dainties, many and laid on the board and placed things as she had by her. And a carver lifted them he by them platters of divers kinds of flesh, and nigh fro pourand walked to henc...
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