12.ppt - Micromachining Micromachining is the basic...

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Micromachining Micromachining is the basic technology for fabrication of micro-components of size in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers . Their need arises from miniaturization of various devices in science and engineering, calling for ultra-precision manufacturing and micro-fabrication. Micromachining is used for fabricating micro-channels and micro-grooves in micro-fluidics applications, micro-filters, drug delivery systems, micro-needles, and micro-probes in biotechnology applications. Micro-machined components are crucial for practical advancement in Micro- electromechanical systems (MEMS) , Micro-electronics (semiconductor devices and integrated circuit technology) and Nanotechnology.
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Classification of Micromanufacturing 1. Conventional: Mechanical: Ultraprecision diamond machining and ultrasonic machining Thermal: Micro EDM, LBM & EBM 2. Sputtering: Ion beam machining 3.Etching: Bulk etching, Surface etching & LIGA 4.Generative process: Micro shaping and Self assembly
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Tolerance levels Normal machining : 10 4 – 10 5 nm Precision machining: 10 2 – 10 3 nm Ultra precision machining:1 -10 nm Metrology: Scanning Electron Microscope, Scanning Tunnel microscope & Atomic Force microscope Applications: Silicon technology, MEMS, Biology, Medicine, Sensors & Actuators
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Ultra precision diamond turning Special Characteristics of Diamond: Crystalline structure facilitates sharp edges High thermal conductivity helps to remove the heat generated during machining High strength even at high temperature High elastic modulus prevents deformation Dimensions less than 100 micrometer is Possible Nanometer level surface finish and tolerance can be achieved Depth of cut can be a few layer of atoms since the diamond structure permits forming sharp edges of few nanometers (15- 20 nm) Diamond & Graphite
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Ultra precision machine tools and miniature machine tools are used • Can produce extremely smooth, precise, high resolution true 3D structures • Expensive, non-parallel, but handles much larger substrates • Precision cutting on lathes produces miniature screws, etc with 12 μm accuracy
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