chapter 13.docx - GOVERNMENT POLITICAL POWER AND SOCIAL...

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GOVERNMENT, POLITICAL POWER AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS In 2014 less than half of the world's populations lived in countries that were classified as free, 24% of the global population partly free, while the rest of the population living in 51 countries were classified as not free. India is an example of this, it was a county that was classified as partly free and now it's free at all, however, 1/2 billion people in India still live in poverty. THEORIES OF DEMOCRACY: DEMOCRATIC ELITISM: by Max Weber and Joseph Schumpeter The Term elitism may be used to describe a situation in which power is concentrated in the hands of a limited number of people. According to weber participatory democracy can succeed in small organizations where the work is straightforward, specialized knowledge and skills are necessary because in regular elections we do not want people with vague knowledge. The development of mass citizenship is closely connected with the idea of general democratic participation, which greatly expands the need for bureaucratic officialdom. For him, to achieve power, political parties must become organized in a systematic way, they must become bureaucratized. For democratic systems to be effective, two conditions must be met: 1 Parties must represent different interests and have different outlooks. 2 There must be political leaders with imagination and the courage to escape the inertia of bureaucracy. Leadership is important in democracy. Elites will represent our interest in an innovative and insightful fashion. According to Schumpeter, democracy is more important as a method of generating effective and responsible government than as a means of providing significant power for the majority. To achieve voting support, however, politicians must be minimally responsive to the demands and interests of the electorate. PLURALIST THEORIES: Individual citizens can have a little or no direct influence on political decision making, they argue that the presence of interest groups can limit the centralization of power in the hands of government officials. Government policies in a democracy are influenced by groups representing different interest- business organizations, trade unions, ethnic groups, and so forth. Competing interest groups are vital to democracy because they divide up power reducing the exclusive influence of any one group or class. Pluralism is a theory that centers on the idea of how power is distributed. The pluralist model indicates that power is distributed among many groups. These groups may include coalitions of like-minded people, unions, professional associations and business lobbyists. The
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percentages of average people that make up these groups are small, so in theory, the public acts as bystanders in the pluralist model of power.
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