midterm1.pptx - Midterm Preparation 1 Compare the theories...

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Midterm Preparation
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1. Compare the theories of the contractualist political philosophers Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau.
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Hobbes: Realist Humans are by nature asocial and apolitical- selfish-bad Man is a wolf to his fellow man- Homo homini lupus Stature of Nature = State of War/Chaos Fear of death- everybody has the power of killing- even the weakest has enough strength to kill the strongest by a trap or collective action Social Contract: agreement of people to transfer their rights in order not to kill and not to be killed to a state Leviathan: monster-state has absolute power. If somebody doesn’t obey the rule, he will be punished by the state. State will protect their life State is an institution to which we surrender our power with one condition: Protect our life
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Locke: Idealist: Man is good by nature. If they do wrong, it is because of the administrations or institutions State of nature ≠ state of war / state of nature = state of peace It is a historical fact and in that situation people lived peacefully unless the time of war People have the sense of moral obligation, protect himself and others in the society People need social contract to protect the Property People give conditional authority to the state, state must protect the life and the property, if not, freedom to change it Government is based on the consent of the people, no one is created to rule other by God
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Rousseau Idealist- Human nature is good State of nature = state of peace Human beings are naturally good in the state of nature however society corrupts humans (human nature changes over time) Man born free and equal Property is the enemy of social existence: private property is not to be treated as a limitless good that some can accumulate at the expense of others The General Will: will of all, not individualistic. People transfer their individualistic will to state but continue to control (checks and balances) Society can be improved to have peace and human freedom through social contract
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Social contract: to replace the natural freedom and equality lost by man in the state of nature with civil freedom Rousseau attempts to find a way whereby individuals remain as free as they were in the state of nature while still performing their duties to society (reconcile freedom and duty) The purpose of social contract: ‘‘To find a form of association which will defend the person and goods of each member with the collective force of all, and under which each individual, while uniting himself with others, obeys no one but himself and remains as free as before.’’ A law is legitimate if every individual freely gives his consent to it
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Family and State: The most ancient of all societies, and the only natural one, is the society of the family.
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