2Ancient&Islamic Political Thought.pptx - UNI 118...

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UNI 118 UNDERSTANDING POLITICS AND ECONOMY ( and MANAGEMENT) ASS. SUMEYYE KAYA D1& D2 [email protected]
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Outline Realism and Idealism Ancient Political Philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, Confucius, Kautilya Islamic Political Philosophy: Al Farabi, Averroes, Ibn Khaldun
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Political Philosophy: Human Nature Realism fundamental distrust in the human nature human beings are by their very nature self-centered selfish, egoistic, and self- interested No moral ethical consideration Idealism Opposite of realism Human nature is good Unselfish, generous Moral
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Ancient Political Thought Plato & Aristotle Confucius & Kautilya
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Idealist The Republic- his main book, written the dialogues with Socrates, an inquiry into the nature of justice, seeking to clarify what justice is and why we should act justly Ruling is a kind of art- all arts seek the good of those they rule, rather than the good of the artist. Medicine seeks the health of the patient, not that of physician Plato
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City in speech: people are needy Division of labour- people work only at the jobs for which they are best suited by Nature ‘one man, one art’: (1) Philosophers- the rational or wisdom-loving (2) Warriors- the ambitious and courageous (3) Producers (farmers, traders, merchants, etc.)- the appetitive and pleasure- loving Virtues are: Wisdom (or knowledge), Courage, Self-Control, and Justice Justice is the master virtue, enabling all others to exist, by ensuring the correct distribution of functions
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Political regimes by Plato: the Good Regimes: Monarchy Aristocracy Moderate Democracy the Bad Regimes: Tyranny Oligarchy Extreme Democracy
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Aristotle Tried to integrate political philosophy with science Collected the constitutions of 158 polis (city-states) The Good Regimes Monarcy: One person ruling in the interests of all Aristocracy: Several persons ruling in the interests of all Polity: Rule of many in the interests of all (constitutional democracy) The Bad Regimes
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