Exam 2 - Full Test Bank '18.docx - BIOL 415 Exam#2 Test...

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BIOL 415: Exam #2 Test Bank 3/16/18 Part I, Definitions (10 terms/phrases will appear on the exam; 80 points total) Use 1-3 COMPLETE SENTENCES! to define each of the following terms. Mutation/selection balance model Adaptation ( aka adaptive evolution) Stabilizing selection Disruptive selection Frequency dependent selection Overdominant selection Directional selection Multilevel selection theory Units of selection Response to selection (R) Mutational load Anisogamy Resource defense polygyny Harem polygyny Polyandry Lek Sexual dimorphism Intrasexual competition The Handicap Principle (of sexual selection) The Good Parent model of sexual selection Epigamic trait Antagonistic pleiotropy Heritability Identity by descent (IBD) Subpopulation Gene flow Inbred/outbred (at the population level) Effective population size ( N e ) Random mating (as an assumption of the Hardy Weinberg model) Genetic drift Microevolution Genotype frequency Assortative mating Isolation-by-distance Convergent evolution Allele frequency Disassortative mating Genetic bottleneck Fitness Pleiotropy
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Antagonistic pleiotropy Epistasis Additive allelic effects Meiotic drive Group selection Cancer Heterosis Selfing Inbreeding depression Darwin’s finches Selective sweep Novel traits Promiscuous proteins Orthologous genes Gene recruitment Red Queen dynamics Part II, Problem Solving (Choose one; 40 points). 1. One factor that can make the effective population size ( N e ) differ from the number of breeding individuals is the breeding sex ratio. What is the value of N e for a population of 5 breeding adult males and 95 adult females? (30 pts) Explain why N e is different than the number of breeding adults (N = 100) in this case. (10 pts) 2. Heterozygosity ( H ) is defined as the proportion of all genotypes in a population at a given locus that are heterozygous. H varies between 0-1. For Populations 1 and 2 indicated below, determine the value of H expected under the HW model, and write the observed and expected values of H into the appropriate places in the table below. (20 pts) Note that the HW expected heterozygosity is based on applying the HW model to the observed allele frequencies. Provide a hypothesis for how heterozygosity in each population might have come to differ from the HW model, taking into account whether the population has a deficit or an excess of heterozygosity. (20 pts) [Assume the difference is real and not just a result of sampling error.] Population 1 Population 2 Genotype AA 0.061 0.076 Genotype Aa 0.278 0.248 Genotype aa Observed H : Expected H : 0.661 0.676
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3. A genetic survey revealed that a population of spruce trees contained 2 alleles ( B and b ) for a gene affecting color of the needles. The survey of 10,000 individuals found the 3 possible genotypes in the following abundances: Genotype BB Bb bb Number found 4428 3604 1968 (a) What are the frequencies of alleles B and b in this sample? (10 pts) (b) How many of each genotype class would have been found if the population effectively approximated the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? (20 pts) (c) Estimate the value of the inbreeding coefficient ( F ) for this population given these data.
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