UNIT THREE ASSIGNMENTS.docx - :Assignments7,8,and9...

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UNIT THREE ASSIGNMENTS: Assignments 7, 8, and 9   Assignment #7: Kant, Fundamental Principles               Read Immanuel Kant’s “Fundamental Principles of Metaphysics of Morals” in the  Create Packet.  This reading presents the second moral theory of the semester, Kant’s  Deontology.  The Greek  deon  suggests obligation, and thus Kant’s Deontology is an  analysis of our moral  duties.   It is, in addition, arguably the most influential if not most  successful moral theory in the history of philosophy.  The level of writing, however, is  very high and very technical, and so it is perhaps useful to keep in mind that the key idea will be this italicized phrase (parenthetical clarifications are mine) found a few pages into your reading:  Act only on that maxim (personal rule) whereby you can at the same time  will (rationally endorse, i.e., without contradiction) that it should become a universal  (moral) law.   This sentence is the first formulation of “the categorical imperative,” i.e.,  Kant’s candidate for the supreme principle of morality, and it deserves at least five  rereads and at least five minutes of intellectual struggle.   1. Why can’t intelligence, wit, courage, riches, and health be properly called “good  without qualification”?       2. Explain the idea of acting “as [moral] duty requires…because [moral] duty requires.”       3. A  maxim  is a subjective principle, e.g., I keep promises, and Kant claims that actions  derive their moral worth from the maxims behind the actions.  Another way to put this  might be that the goodness of an action is based on the why the action was performed.   Give an example of the same action being performed by two different people, e.g., giving money to charity, and explain how the second person’s action can be morally superior to the first person’s action.       4.  Can I “universalize”––i.e., will (rationally endorse) as a universal (moral) law––my  plan to borrow money without intending to repay it?  Explain.
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        5.  Write a brief essay in which you describe a biomedical scenario, identify a moral  question arising from it, and resolve the question by applying the categorical imperative  to the scenario.  You must state the categorical imperative in your essay, and you may  follow the pattern found in the following sketch of how to go about writing an ethical  analysis that involves Kant’s categorical imperative (read and reread the sketch, noting  the intricacies involved in the application of the principle of deontology to the example):   First, compactly and clearly describe an ethical scenario, e.g., Sean wants to borrow 
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