Problems-Encountered.doc

Problems-Encountered.doc - Tradition and Innovation ELT and...

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Tradition and Innovation: ELT and Teacher Training in the 1990’s, Vol. 2 . Ankara: Hacettepe University and The British Council, 1992.) PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN TEACHER TRAINING SESSIONS FOR TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS F. OZDEN EKMEKCI Introduction Since English Language Teaching (ELT) Departments in Turkey aim at training teachers of English, the courses offered are geared towards this purpose. With the establishment of the Council of Higher Education, the ELT curriculum has been prescribed for each University. Recently, however, there has been a tendency to make some modifications in the ELT curriculum, but these modifications seem to be based on the expertise of the professors in these teacher-training programs rather than the needs of the students. Such differences between the suggested and the applied courses can be observed in other countries around the world. Robert B. Nolan (in Bowen, Madsen and Hilferty 1985:53) indicates the recommended areas of TESL Teacher Training Programs by 22 TESL experts in the United States (see Table I). Table I _______________________________________________________________ RECOMMENDED AREA OF TEFL TEACHER TRAINING _________________________________________________________________ ESL METHODS 22 LINGUISTICS 17 ESL MATERIALS & CURRICULUM 16 GRAMMAR/STRUCTURE OF ENGLISH 14 PRACTICE TEACHING 12 TESTING & EVALUATION 11 CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION 10 INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE 7 PHONOLOGY/SOUND SYSTEM 7 FOREIGN LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE 4 PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING 4 TEACHING READING 4 HUMAN RELATIONS AND COUNSELING 3 SEMINAR IN SPECIAL PROBLEMS 1 ___________________
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TOTAL NUMBER 22 _________________________________________________________________ Source: Robert B. Nolan in TESOL: Techniques and Procedures by D. Bowen, H. Madsen and A. Hilferty, Newbury, 1985: 53 _________________________________________________________________ There seems to be unanimous agreement on the inclusion of ESL methods into teacher training programs. Linguistics , being the next favored area, is recommended by 17 experts, and ESL Materials and Curriculum takes the third place by the vote of 16 experts. Grammar/Structure of English is emphasized by 14 and Practice Teaching is indicated by 12 experts. Testing and Evaluation is cited by 11 and Cross-Cultural Communication by 10 of the experts. Areas that are recommended by one third or less of the experts are Introduction to Language, Phonology , Foreign Language Experience , Psychology of Learning , Teaching Reading , and Human Relations and Counselling . In observing the survey made by Blatchard (in Bowen, Madsen & Hilferty 1985:53) on TESL major requirements at 44 universities in the United States and Canada, we see that what is recommended does not coincide with what is required (see Table II). TABLE II _________________________________________________________________ FREQUENCIES OF TESL MAJOR REQUIREMENTS AT UNITED STATES AND CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES (44 universities surveyed) _________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS 40 GRAMMAR 32 PHONOLOGY 29 TESL/TEFL MATERIALS AND CURR. 25 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 19 BILINGUAL EDUCATION 13 TEFL/TESL METHODS 10 STUDENT TEACHING 7 SOCIOLINGUISTICS 7 LITERATURE 6 INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION 6 FOREIGN LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE 6 HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE 6 LANGUAGE TESTING AND EVALUATION 5 SEMINAR/SPECIAL PROBLEMS 1 _________________________________________________________________ Source: Blatchard, Charles in TESOL: Techniques and Procedures by D. Bowen, H. Madsen and A. Hilferty. Newbury, 1985: 54.
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